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In particular, scribes will alter a less familiar form to a more familiar, if they see nothing to prevent them. Ifmetre allows, or if they do not know that metre forbids, they will alter ἐλεινός{eleinos} to ἐλεεινός{eleeinos}, οἰστός{oistos} to ὀϊστός{oiistos}, nil to nihil , deprendo to deprehendo . Since metre convicts them of infidelity in some places, theyforfeit the right to be trusted in any place; if we choose to trust them we are credulous, and if we build structures on ourtrust we are no critics. Even if metre does not convict them, reason sometimes can. Take the statement, repeatedly made ingrammars and editions, that the Latins sometimes used the pluperfect for the imperfect and the perfect. They did use itfor the imperfect; they used it also for the preterite or past aorist; but for the perfect they did not use it; and that isproved by the very examples of its use as perfect which are found in MSS. All those examples are of the 3rd personplural. Why? We must choose between the two following hypotheses:

  • (a) That the Latins used the pluperfect for the perfectin the 3rd person plural only.
  • (b) That they did not use the pluperfect for the perfect, and that these examples are corrupt.

[83] If anyone adopted the former, he would haveto explain what syntactical property, inviting the author to use pluperfect for perfect, is possessed by the 3rd person pluraland not by the two other plural or the three singular persons: and I should like to see some one set about it.

If we adopt the latter, we must show what external feature, inviting the scribe to write pluperfect for perfect, is possessed by the 3rd person plural exclusively: and that isquite easy. The 3rd person plural is the only person in which the perfect and the pluperfect differ merely by one letter.Moreover in verse the perfect termination -ěrunt , being comparatively unfamiliar to scribes, is altered by them to the nearest familiar form withthe same scansion, sometimes -erint , sometimes -erant : in Ovid's Heroides there are four places where the best MS. gives praebuěrunt , stetěrunt , exciděrunt , expulěrunt , and the other MSS. give -erant or -erint or both. Accordingly, when the much inferior MSS. of Propertius presentpluperfect for perfect in four places, fuerant once, steterant once, exciderant twice, Scaliger corrects to fuěrunt , stetěrunt , exciděrunt . Thereupon an editor of this enlightened age takes up his pen and writes as follows:"It is quite erroneous to remove the pluperfects where it can be done without great expenditure of conjectural sagacity( steterunt for steterant and the like), and not to trouble oneself about the phenomenon elsewhere."I ask, how is it possible to trouble oneself about the phenomenon elsewhere? It does not exist elsewhere.There is no place where the MSS. give steteram in the sense of the perfect steti , nor steteras in the sense of the perfect stetisti . Wherever they give examples of the pluperfect which cannot be removed by thechange of one letter—such as pararat in i. 8. 36 or fueram in i. 12. 11—those are examples where it has sometimes the sense of the imperfect,sometimes the preterite, but never of the perfect. And the inference is plain: the Latins did not use the pluperfect forthe perfect.

Scaliger knew that in the sixteenth century: Mr. [84]Rothstein, in the nineteenth and twentieth, does not know it; he has found a form of words to prevent him from knowingit, and he thinks himself in advance of Scaliger. It is supposed that there has been progress in the science of textual criticism,and the most frivolous pretender has learnt to talk superciliously about"the old unscientific days."The old unscientific days are everlasting, they are here and now;they are renewed perennially by the ear which takes formulas in, and the tongue which gives them out again, and the mind whichmeanwhile is empty of reflexion and stuffed with self-complacency. Progress there has been, but where? Insuperior intellects: the rabble do not share it. Such a man as Scaliger, living in our time, would be a better critic thanScaliger was; but we shall not be better critics than Scaliger by the simple act of living in our own time. Textual criticism,like most other sciences, is an aristocratic affair, not communicable to all men, nor to most men. Not to be a textualcritic is no reproach to anyone, unless he pretends to be what he is not. To be a textual critic requires aptitude for thinking and willingness to think; and though italso requires other things, those things are supplements and cannot be substitutes. Knowledge is good, method is good, butone thing beyond all others is necessary; and that is to have a head, not a pumpkin, on your shoulders and brains, not pudding,in your head.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Text as property/property as text. OpenStax CNX. Feb 10, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10217/1.7
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