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The paradox is more formidable in appearance than in reality, and has plenty of analogies in daily life. In a trialor lawsuit the jury's verdict is mainly based upon the evidence of the witnesses; but that does not prevent the jury from making upits mind, from the evidence in general, that one or more witnesses have been guilty of perjury and that their evidence is to bedisregarded. It is quite possible to elicit from the general testimony of MSS. a rule of sufficient certainty to convict offalsehood their exceptional testimony, or of sufficient probability to throw doubt upon it. But that exceptional testimonymust in each case be considered. It must be recognised that there are two hypotheses between which we have to decide: the questionis whether the exceptions come from the author, and so break down the rule, or whether they come from the scribe, and are to becorrected by it: [81] and in order to decide this we must keep oureyes open for any peculiarity which may happen to characterise them.

One of the forms which lack of thought has assumed in textual criticism is the tendency now prevailing, especiallyamong some Continental scholars, to try to break down accepted rules of grammar or metre by the mere collection and enumerationof exceptions presented by the MSS. Now that can never break down a rule: the mere number of exceptions is nothing; what matters istheir weight, and that can only be ascertained by classification and scrutiny. If I had noted down every example which I have met,I should now have a large collection of places in Latin MSS. where the substantive orbis , which our grammars and dictionaries declare to be masculine, has a feminine adjectiveattached to it. But I do not therefore propose to revise that rule of syntax, for examination would show that these examples, thoughnumerous, have no force. Most of them are places where the sense and context show that orbis , in whatever case or number it may be, is merely a corruption of the correspondingcase and number of urbs ; and in the remaining places it is natural to suppose that the scribe has beeninfluenced and confused by the great likeness of the one word to the other. Or again, read Madvig, Adu. Crit. , vol. I, book i, chap. iv, where he sifts the evidence for the opinion that theaorist infinitive can be used in Greek after verbs of saying and thinking in the sense of the future infinitive or of the aoristinfinitive with ά̕ν{an}. The list of examples in the MSS. is very long indeed; but the moment you begin to sort them and examine them youare less struck by their umber than by the restriction of their extent. Almost all of them are such as δέξασθαι{dexasthai} used for δέξεσθαι{dexesthai} where the two forms differ by one letter only; a smaller number are such as ποιη̑σαι{poiesai} for ποιήσειν{poiesein} where the difference, though greater, is still slight; others are examples like ή̔κισταἀναγκαασθη̑ναι{ekist' anagkasthenai} for ή̔κισττ’ά̕νἀναγκασθη̑ναι{ekist' an anagkasthenai}, where again the difference is next to nothing. Now if the MSS. are right in these cases, and the Greek authors did use this [82]construction, how are we to explain this extraordinary limitation of the use? There is no syntactical difference between the firstand second aorist: why then did they use the 1st aorist so often for the future and the 2nd aorist so seldom? why did they say δέξασθαι{dexasthai} for δέξεσθαι{dexesthai} dozens of times and λαβει̑ν{labein} for λήψεσθαι{lepsesthai} never? The mere asking of that question is enough to show the true state of the case. The bare fact that the aorists thus used in theMSS. are aorists of similar form to the future, while aorists of dissimilar form are not thus used, provesthat the phenomenon has its cause in the copyist's eye and not in the author's mind, that it is not a variation in grammatical usagebut an error in transcription. The number of examples is nothing; all depends upon their character; and a single example of λαβει̑ν{labein} in a future sense would have more weight than a hundred of δέξασθαι{dexasthai}

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Text as property/property as text. OpenStax CNX. Feb 10, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10217/1.7
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