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The paradox is more formidable in appearance than in reality, and has plenty of analogies in daily life. In a trialor lawsuit the jury's verdict is mainly based upon the evidence of the witnesses; but that does not prevent the jury from making upits mind, from the evidence in general, that one or more witnesses have been guilty of perjury and that their evidence is to bedisregarded. It is quite possible to elicit from the general testimony of MSS. a rule of sufficient certainty to convict offalsehood their exceptional testimony, or of sufficient probability to throw doubt upon it. But that exceptional testimonymust in each case be considered. It must be recognised that there are two hypotheses between which we have to decide: the questionis whether the exceptions come from the author, and so break down the rule, or whether they come from the scribe, and are to becorrected by it: [81] and in order to decide this we must keep oureyes open for any peculiarity which may happen to characterise them.

One of the forms which lack of thought has assumed in textual criticism is the tendency now prevailing, especiallyamong some Continental scholars, to try to break down accepted rules of grammar or metre by the mere collection and enumerationof exceptions presented by the MSS. Now that can never break down a rule: the mere number of exceptions is nothing; what matters istheir weight, and that can only be ascertained by classification and scrutiny. If I had noted down every example which I have met,I should now have a large collection of places in Latin MSS. where the substantive orbis , which our grammars and dictionaries declare to be masculine, has a feminine adjectiveattached to it. But I do not therefore propose to revise that rule of syntax, for examination would show that these examples, thoughnumerous, have no force. Most of them are places where the sense and context show that orbis , in whatever case or number it may be, is merely a corruption of the correspondingcase and number of urbs ; and in the remaining places it is natural to suppose that the scribe has beeninfluenced and confused by the great likeness of the one word to the other. Or again, read Madvig, Adu. Crit. , vol. I, book i, chap. iv, where he sifts the evidence for the opinion that theaorist infinitive can be used in Greek after verbs of saying and thinking in the sense of the future infinitive or of the aoristinfinitive with ά̕ν{an}. The list of examples in the MSS. is very long indeed; but the moment you begin to sort them and examine them youare less struck by their umber than by the restriction of their extent. Almost all of them are such as δέξασθαι{dexasthai} used for δέξεσθαι{dexesthai} where the two forms differ by one letter only; a smaller number are such as ποιη̑σαι{poiesai} for ποιήσειν{poiesein} where the difference, though greater, is still slight; others are examples like ή̔κισταἀναγκαασθη̑ναι{ekist' anagkasthenai} for ή̔κισττ’ά̕νἀναγκασθη̑ναι{ekist' an anagkasthenai}, where again the difference is next to nothing. Now if the MSS. are right in these cases, and the Greek authors did use this [82]construction, how are we to explain this extraordinary limitation of the use? There is no syntactical difference between the firstand second aorist: why then did they use the 1st aorist so often for the future and the 2nd aorist so seldom? why did they say δέξασθαι{dexasthai} for δέξεσθαι{dexesthai} dozens of times and λαβει̑ν{labein} for λήψεσθαι{lepsesthai} never? The mere asking of that question is enough to show the true state of the case. The bare fact that the aorists thus used in theMSS. are aorists of similar form to the future, while aorists of dissimilar form are not thus used, provesthat the phenomenon has its cause in the copyist's eye and not in the author's mind, that it is not a variation in grammatical usagebut an error in transcription. The number of examples is nothing; all depends upon their character; and a single example of λαβει̑ν{labein} in a future sense would have more weight than a hundred of δέξασθαι{dexasthai}

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Text as property/property as text. OpenStax CNX. Feb 10, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10217/1.7
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