# 2.2 Symbols-to-fft (transmitter) (labview)  (Page 2/2)

Another way of looking at this is that we're simpling doing a parallel to serial operation. Let's get on to the actual implementation in LabVIEW.

Above we see the actual block diagram. Though it can appear overwhelming, as long as the theory discussed above is understood, the rest is rather simple. In fact, everything we discussed above is nearly implemented in one block by the built in IFFT function! Everything we see surrounding it is put in place for user-friendliness and flexability.

In case an injected carrier for ease of receiving is desired, the user can specify a carrier symbol. The array size divided by two and rounding simply is to find out if there is an even or odd number of subcarriers. If even, the carrier specified is injected. If odd, the DC frequency is injected with the first symbol, so the lone symbol will take the place of the carrier for the sake of symettry. The reason the round toward infinity is used is simply because of the way the split array function works. The split array function simply truncates the number and cuts the array at that point, so by rounding up the odd carrier will always be in the first half.

The second half of the split is added to the end of the frequency domain. The only magic then appears in between: how many zeros do we inject and why? The answer isn't as direct, but it is a very fundamental concept. We want to conserve bandwidth, and so this is the motivation between bunching up the subcarriers as close to DC as possible. In addition, the easiest and most efficient way to make them orthogonal is to place a symbol at each sample. This way they're all related to the first non-DC frequency which is itself a fraction of the sampling (D/A) frequency.

Now, we want to ensure these relationships are maintained, as well as a few more. The user can specify the exact fundamental frequency desired, as well as the ultimate D/A rate. Two things must hold in the spectrum then: the fundamental frequency must be related to the D/A rate appropriately and in the first sample, and the Nyquist Rate of the system must be half the sampling frequency. If any of this is completely new, review the fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing (DSP). This constraint is the reason we choose the number of zeros, and why we want to choose our fundamental frequency such that sampling_freq/(2*fundamental_freq) is a whole number. Stated another way, the Nyquist Rate is evenly divisible by our fundamental. Once again, we can say the Nyquist Rate is an integer multiple of the Fundamental Frequency. This should be apparent from the above discussion. Afterall, halfway through our samples we should encounter the Nyquist Rate, the highest representable digital frequency, half the sampling rate. Every sample before this will be a fraction of this frequency. If this frequency exists at Sample 32, then our fundamental should be 1/32th of the Nyquist rate, as we will place it on a sample directly (no interpolation).

While a more generalized procedure is certainly possible, it's simply not practical in the face of transparency and computational complexity. In addition, sample rate conversion is a topic in and of itself, and any of those advanced techniques can be applied to the signal externally before transmission.

If you are still confused on how this works, check out the instructional and example video below or email the author for more questions. The sub-VI is available below for download.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!