<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Arts and culture

Grade 8

Critical and creative expression

Module 11

The use of polyphony in african music

MUSIC

Activity 1:

To research the use of polyphony in african music

[lo 2.6]

  • To understand the activity, you must know the meaning of the concepts Africa and polyphony . As soon as we understand these, it will be obvious how African music uses polyphony to give each participant equal space in the making of music.

Background

  • Research the culture and way of life of the people of Africa, paying special attention to their attitude towards family life (this includes interviewing different people). Remember, when we talk of African music, we are referring mainly to the music of the Sub-Saharan region. This region is south of the Sahara Desert and includes West, East and Central Africa. The style of North Africa is linked to that of the Middle East.

Write your research in the form of a diary entry and paste examples into your learner journal.

Compare a Western concert to an African musical presentation using the information obtained through your research. (Write inside the illustration of a stage.)

The use of polyphony in African music

What is the meaning of the word ‘polyphony’?

Variety of parts

Performance 1: Melody of round sung in unison

Melody
How many melodic parts are there?
Are the melodic parts clearly recognisable?
Motivate
Harmony
Have harmonies been formed?
If so, is the harmony clear or vague?
Motivate
Rhythm
Is the rhythmic pattern clearly recognisable or is it difficult to recognise?
Motivate
Texture
Is the texture thin or dense?
Motivate
Style
Is it a mono-, homo- or polyphonic performance? First determine the meaning of each prefix, before making your deduction!

Performance 2: Melody of round sung with accompaniment, e.g. on piano

Melody
How many melodic parts are there?
Are the melodic parts clearly recognisable?
Motivate
Harmony
Are harmonies formed?
If so, are these clear or vague?
Motivate
Rhythm
Is the rhythmic pattern clearly recognisable or is it difficult to recognise?
Motivate
Texture
Is the texture thin or dense?
Motivate
Style
Is it a mono-, homo- or polyphonic performance? First determine the meaning of each prefix, before making your deduction!

Performance 3: Round sung in three parts

Melody
How many melodic parts are there?
Are the melodic parts clearly recognisable?
Motivate
Harmony
Have harmonies been formed?
If so, is the harmony clear or vague?
Motivate
Rhythm
Is the rhythmic pattern clearly recognisable or is it difficult?
Motivate
Texture
Is the texture thin or dense?
Motivate
Style
Is it a mono-, homo- or polyphonic performance? First determine the meaning of each prefix, before making your deduction!

Summary

  • Monophony means
  • Homophony means
  • Polyphony means

Listen to the recording of the Ritual Healing Music from Malawi which your educator will play you.

  • How many music parts do you hear?
  • Can you identify each part?
  • Independence of the parts.
  • Independence with regard to rhythm.

In African music each part is rhythmically independent from the other, but a unit is still formed. Follow the educator's instructions:

BEATS
1 2 3 4 5 6
Pattern 1
Pattern 2
Total pattern
  • Each of the two patterns can be identified and a third is formed as a result of the combination of the first two. This technique is called hocketing: Although each party has its own individuality, co-operation and interaction take place despite the independence.

What do you understand under the following terms. Explain by using the above-mentioned example.

Independence
Co-operation
Interaction
  • Independence with regard to melody.
  • Independence with regard to timbre.
  • Imitative entrances which cause overlapping.
  • Research one of the following:
  • The Shona community
  • Mbira music
  • Fugue
  • JS Bach
  • Paste your research into your learner journal.

MBIRA MUSIC (Im-BEE-rah)

Answer the following questions:

1. Which Western music form makes use of imitative entrances?

2. With which composer do you associate this form?

3. Which instrument was used in the example to which you listened?

4. Which country is especially famous for its mbira music?

5. Which tribal community of this country practises mbira music?

6. Which other music instrument is often combined with the mbira?

7. Why do mbira players sometimes begin at any place in the cycle?

8. Motivate why mbira music from up to 700 years ago is still in use?

Give a schematic presentation of the entrances of the various participants.

Try the following:

  • You will be divided into 3 or 4 groups. (As soon as you have mastered the principle of ‘hocketing’, more groups can be used.)
  • The groups decide on possible rhythmical patterns by entering crosses on the beats. The groups present their patterns to the other learners - then all learners complete the graph.
  • Each group decides on a specific presentation medium.
  • The groups first practise their patterns separately before it is joined.
  • The educator will count out loud, so that everyone can co-operate to obtain hocketing, otherwise it will turn into a cacophony.
  • Finally the participants act imitatively to demonstrate imitative entrances.
  • Then you enter the new pattern, which has been formed, in the following graph.
BEATS
INSTRUMENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
2
3
4
5
6
Combined pattern
  • Which genre that you know of also makes use of imitative entrances (it can be sung)?
  • Is overlapping caused by the various voice parts?

Assessment

Learning Outcome(LOs)
LU 2
REFLECTINGThe learner will be able to reflect critically and creatively on artistic and cultural processes, products and styles in past and present contexts.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
COMPOSITE
2.2 discusses how the Arts have contributed and can contribute towards social and cultural change (e.g. as a mirror, in documentaries, as suggestions, commentaries, predictions).
MUSIC
2.6 listens to and demonstrates how the use of polyphony in African music accords participants equitable space in the making of music;

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
what is hormones?
Wellington
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Arts and culture grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11046/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Arts and culture grade 8' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask