# 2.2 Histograms, frequency polygons, and time series graphs  (Page 6/15)

 Page 6 / 15

Sixty-five randomly selected car salespersons were asked the number of cars they generally sell in one week. Fourteen people answered that they generally sell three cars; nineteen generally sell four cars; twelve generally sell five cars; nine generally sell six cars; eleven generally sell seven cars. Complete the table.

Data Value (# cars) Frequency Relative Frequency Cumulative Relative Frequency

What does the frequency column in [link] sum to? Why?

65

What does the relative frequency column in [link] sum to? Why?

What is the difference between relative frequency and frequency for each data value in [link] ?

The relative frequency shows the proportion of data points that have each value. The frequency tells the number of data points that have each value.

What is the difference between cumulative relative frequency and relative frequency for each data value?

To construct the histogram for the data in [link] , determine appropriate minimum and maximum x and y values and the scaling. Sketch the histogram. Label the horizontal and vertical axes with words. Include numerical scaling.

Answers will vary. One possible histogram is shown:

Construct a frequency polygon for the following:

1. Pulse Rates for Women Frequency
60–69 12
70–79 14
80–89 11
90–99 1
100–109 1
110–119 0
120–129 1
2. Actual Speed in a 30 MPH Zone Frequency
42–45 25
46–49 14
50–53 7
54–57 3
58–61 1
3. Tar (mg) in Nonfiltered Cigarettes Frequency
10–13 1
14–17 0
18–21 15
22–25 7
26–29 2

Construct a frequency polygon from the frequency distribution for the 50 highest ranked countries for depth of hunger.

Depth of Hunger Frequency
230–259 21
260–289 13
290–319 5
320–349 7
350–379 1
380–409 1
410–439 1

Find the midpoint for each class. These will be graphed on the x -axis. The frequency values will be graphed on the y -axis values.

Use the two frequency tables to compare the life expectancy of men and women from 20 randomly selected countries. Include an overlayed frequency polygon and discuss the shapes of the distributions, the center, the spread, and any outliers. What can we conclude about the life expectancy of women compared to men?

Life Expectancy at Birth – Women Frequency
49–55 3
56–62 3
63–69 1
70–76 3
77–83 8
84–90 2
Life Expectancy at Birth – Men Frequency
49–55 3
56–62 3
63–69 1
70–76 1
77–83 7
84–90 5

Construct a times series graph for (a) the number of male births, (b) the number of female births, and (c) the total number of births.

 Sex/Year 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 Female 45,545 49,582 50,257 50,324 51,915 51,220 52,403 Male 47,804 52,239 53,158 53,694 54,628 54,409 54,606 Total 93,349 101,821 103,415 104,018 106,543 105,629 107,009
 Sex/Year 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 Female 51,812 53,115 54,959 54,850 55,307 55,527 56,292 55,033 Male 55,257 56,226 57,374 58,220 58,360 58,517 59,222 58,321 Total 107,069 109,341 112,333 113,070 113,667 114,044 115,514 113,354
 Sex/Year 1871 1870 1872 1871 1872 1827 1874 1875 Female 56,099 56,431 57,472 56,099 57,472 58,233 60,109 60,146 Male 60,029 58,959 61,293 60,029 61,293 61,467 63,602 63,432 Total 116,128 115,390 118,765 116,128 118,765 119,700 123,711 123,578

The following data sets list full time police per 100,000 citizens along with homicides per 100,000 citizens for the city of Detroit, Michigan during the period from 1961 to 1973.

 Year 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 Police 260.35 269.8 272.04 272.96 272.51 261.34 268.89 Homicides 8.6 8.9 8.52 8.89 13.07 14.57 21.36
 Year 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 Police 295.99 319.87 341.43 356.59 376.69 390.19 Homicides 28.03 31.49 37.39 46.26 47.24 52.33
1. Construct a double time series graph using a common x -axis for both sets of data.
2. Which variable increased the fastest? Explain.
3. Did Detroit’s increase in police officers have an impact on the murder rate? Explain.

#### Questions & Answers

Uttam
How can I calculate the Class Mark, Relative frequency and the cumulative frequency on a frequency table?
what is the important in business planning and economics
explain the limitation and scope of statistics
mahelt
statistics is limited to use where data can be measured quantitatively. statistics scope is wider such as in economic planning, medical science etc.
Gurpreet
can you send me mcq type questions
Yas
Umar
which books are best to learn applied statistics for data science/ML
Gurpreet
A population consists of five numbers 2,3,6,8,11.consists all possible samples of size two which can be drawn with replacement from this population. calculate the S.E of sample means
A particular train reaches the destination in time in 75 per cent of the times.A person travels 5 times in that train.Find probability that he will reach the destination in time, for all the 5 times.
0.237
Amresh
explain that this answer-0.237
umesh
p(x=5)= 5C0 p^5 q^0 solve this
Amresh
umesh
ok
umesh
5C0=1 p^5= (3/4)^5 q^0=(1/4)^0
Amresh
Hint(0.75 in time and 0.25 not in time)
kamugi
what is standard deviation?
It is the measure of the variation of certain values from the Mean (Center) of a frequency distribution of sample values for a particular Variable.
Dominic
what is the number of x
10
Elicia
Javed Arif
Jawed
how will you know if a group of data set is a sample or population
population is the whole set and the sample is the subset of population.
umair
if the data set is drawn out of a larger set it is a sample and if it is itself the whole complete set it can be treated as population.
Bhavika
hello everyone if I have the data set which contains measurements of each part during 10 years, may I say that it's the population or it's still a sample because it doesn't contain my measurements in the future? thanks
Alexander
Pls I hv a problem on t test is there anyone who can help?
Peggy
What's your problem Peggy Abang
Dominic
Bhavika is right
Dominic
what is the problem peggy?
Bhavika
hi
Sandeep
Hello
hi
Bhavika
hii Bhavika
Dar
Hi eny population has a special definition. if that data set had all of characteristics of definition, that is population. otherwise that is a sample
Hoshyar
three coins are tossed. find the probability of no head
three coins are tossed consecutively or what ?
umair
umair
or .125 is the probability of getting no head when 3 coins are tossed
umair
🤣🤣🤣
Simone
what is two tailed test
if the diameter will be greater than 3 cm then the bullet will not fit in the barrel of the gun so you are bothered for both the sides.
umair
in this test you are worried on both the ends
umair
lets say you are designing a bullet for thw gun od diameter equals 3cm.if the diameter of the bullet is less than 3 cm then you wont be able to shoot it
umair
In order to apply weddles rule for numerical integration what is minimum number of ordinates
excuse me?
Gabriel
why?
didn't understand the question though.
Gabriel
which question? ?
We have rules of numerical integration like Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's 1/3 and 3/8 rules, Boole's rule and Weddle rule for n =1,2,3,4 and 6 but for n=5?
John
Someone should help me please, how can I calculate the Class Mark, Relative frequency and the cumulative frequency on a frequency table?
IJOGI
geometric mean of two numbers 4 and 16 is:
10
umair
really
iphone
quartile deviation of 8 8 8 is:
iphone
sorry 8 is the geometric mean of 4,16
umair
quartile deviation of 8 8 8 is
iphone
can you please expalin the whole question ?
umair
mcq
iphone
h
iphone
can you please post the picture of that ?
umair
how
iphone
hello
John
10 now
John
how to find out the value
can you be more specific ?
umair
yes
KrishnaReddy
what is the difference between inferential and descriptive statistics
descriptive statistics gives you the result on the the data like you can calculate various things like variance,mean,median etc. however, inferential stats is involved in prediction of future trends using the previous stored data.
umair
if you need more help i am up for the help.
umair
Thanks a lot
Anjali
Inferential Statistics involves drawing conclusions on a population based on analysis of a sample. Descriptive statistics summarises or describes your current data as numerical calculations or graphs.
fred
my pleasure😊. Helping others offers me satisfaction 😊
umair
inferential statistics the results of the statistical analysis of the sample data of the population are used for generalization or decision making about the population why descriptive statistics, the analyzed data are presented without generalization or decision making about the population.
IJOGI