<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

When Apple Computer introduced the iMac computer in August 1998, the company wanted to learn whether the iMac was expandingApple?s market share. Was the iMac just attracting previous Macintosh owners? Or was it purchased by newcomers to thecomputer market, and by previous Windows users who were switching over? To find out, 500 iMac customers wereinterviewed. Each customer was categorized as a previous Macintosh owners, a previous Windows owner, or a new computerpurchaser. This section examines graphical methods for displaying the results of the interviews. We'll learn somegeneral lessons about how to graph data that fall into a small number of categories. A later section will consider how to graphnumerical data in which each observation is represented by a number in some range. The key point about the qualitative datathat occupy us in the present section is that they do not come with a pre-established ordering (the way numbers areordered). For example, there is no natural sense in which the category of previous Windows users comes before or after thecategory of previous iMac users. This situation may be contrasted with quantitative data, such as a person?sweight. People of one weight are naturally ordered with respect to people of a different weight.

Frequency tables

All of the graphical methods shown in this section are derived from frequency tables. shows a frequency table for the results of the iMac study; it showsthe frequencies of the various response categories. It also shows the relative frequencies, which are the proportion ofresponses in each category. For example, the relative frequency for "none" of 0.17 85 500 .

Frequency table for the mac data
Previous Ownership Frequency Relative Frequency
None 85 0.17
Windows 60 0.12
Macintosh 355 0.71
Total 500 1.00

Pie charts

The pie chart in shows the results of the iMac study. In a pie chart, each category is representedby a slice of the pie. The area of the slice is proportional to the percentage of responses in the category. This is simplythe relative frequency multiplied by 100. Although most iMac purchasers were Macintosh owners, Apple was encouraged by the12% of purchasers who were former Windows users, and by the 17% of purchasers who were buying a computer for the firsttime.

Pie chart of iMac purchases illustrating frequencies of previous computer ownership.
Pie charts are effective for displaying the relative frequencies of a small number of categories. They are not recommended,however, when you have a large number of categories. Pie charts can also be confusing when they are used to compare the outcomesof two different surveys or experiments. In an influential book on the use of graphs, Edward Tufte asserted
"The only worse design than a pie chart is several of them"
.

Here is another important point about pie charts. If they are based on a small number of observations, itcan be misleading to label the pie slices with percentages. For example, if just 5 people had been interviewed by AppleComputers, and 3 were former Windows users, it would be misleading to display a pie chart with the Windows slice showing60%. With so few people interviewed, such a large percentage of Windows users might easily have accord since chance can causelarge errors with small samples. In this case, it is better to alert the user of the pie chart to the actual numbersinvolved. The slices should therefore be labeled with the actual frequencies observed ( e.g. , 3) instead of with percentages.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play




Source:  OpenStax, Collaborative statistics (custom online version modified by t. short). OpenStax CNX. Jul 15, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11476/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Collaborative statistics (custom online version modified by t. short)' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask