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where the new_type portion is the keyword representing the type to which you want to cast the variable.

Example:

int iNum = 100;

float fNum;

fNum = float (inum);

If you do not explicitly cast a variable of one data type to another data type, then C++ will try to automatically perform the cast for you.

Program input using the cin object

So far, our programs have been limited in the sense that all their data must be defined within the program source code.

We will now learn how to write programs which enable data to be entered via the keyboard, while the program is running.

Such programs can be made to operate upon different data every time they run, making them much more flexible and useful.

Standard input stream

The cin object reads in information from the keyboard via the standard input stream.

The extraction operator (>>) retrieves information from the input stream.

When the statement cin>>num1; is encountered, the computer stops program execution and accepts data from the keyboard. The user responds by typing an integer (or float) and then pressing the Enter key (sometimes called the Return key) to send the number to the computer. When a data item is typed, the cin object stores the integer (or float) into the variable listed after the>>operator.

The cin and cout stream objects facilitate interaction between the user and the computer. Because this interaction resembles a dialogue, it is often called conversational computing or interactive computing.

Example

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

int integer1, integer2, sum; // declaration

cout<<"Enter first integer\n"; // prompt

cin>>integer1; // read an integer

cout<<"Enter second integer\n"; // prompt

cin>>integer2; // read an integer

sum = integer1 + integer2;

cout<<"Sum is "<<sum<<endl;

return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully

}

The output of the above program:

Enter the first integer

45

Enter the second integer

72

Sum is 117

Example

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

int integer1, integer2, sum; // declaration

cout<<"Enter two integers\n"; // prompt

cin>>integer1>>integer2; // read two integers

sum = integer1 + integer2;

cout<<"Sum is "<<sum<<endl;

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

Enter two integers

45 72

Sum is 117

Symbolic constants

C++ introduces the concept of a named constant that is just like a variable, except that its value cannot be changed. The qualifier const tells the compiler that a name represents a constant. Any data type, built-in or user-defined, may be defined as const. If you define something as const and then attempt to modify it, the compiler will generate an error.

To define a constant in a program, we use const declaration qualifier.

Example:

const float PI = 3.1416;

const double SALESTAX = 0.05;

const int MAXNUM = 100;

Once declared, a constant can be used in any C++ statement in place of the number it represents.

Example

// this program calculates the circumference of a circle

// given its radius

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

const float PI = 3.1416

float radius, circumference;

radius = 2.0;

circumference = 2.0 * PI * radius;

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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