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Give an example of entrainment not mentioned in the text.

Many entrainment devices have a constriction, called a Venturi, such as shown in [link] . How does this bolster entrainment?

Figure shows a venturi tube, a cylindrical tube broader at both the ends and narrow in the middle. The narrow part is labeled as venturi constriction. The flow of fluid is shown as horizontal arrows along the length of the tube toward the right. The flow lines are closer in the center and spread apart at both the ends. There is an opening on the top portion of the narrow section for the entrained fluid to enter.
A tube with a narrow segment designed to enhance entrainment is called a Venturi. These are very commonly used in carburetors and aspirators.

Some chimney pipes have a T-shape, with a crosspiece on top that helps draw up gases whenever there is even a slight breeze. Explain how this works in terms of Bernoulli’s principle.

Is there a limit to the height to which an entrainment device can raise a fluid? Explain your answer.

Why is it preferable for airplanes to take off into the wind rather than with the wind?

Roofs are sometimes pushed off vertically during a tropical cyclone, and buildings sometimes explode outward when hit by a tornado. Use Bernoulli’s principle to explain these phenomena.

Why does a sailboat need a keel?

It is dangerous to stand close to railroad tracks when a rapidly moving commuter train passes. Explain why atmospheric pressure would push you toward the moving train.

Water pressure inside a hose nozzle can be less than atmospheric pressure due to the Bernoulli effect. Explain in terms of energy how the water can emerge from the nozzle against the opposing atmospheric pressure.

A perfume bottle or atomizer sprays a fluid that is in the bottle. ( [link] .) How does the fluid rise up in the vertical tube in the bottle?

A perfume bottle with a spray cap.
Atomizer: perfume bottle with tube to carry perfume up through the bottle. (credit: Antonia Foy, Flickr)

If you lower the window on a car while moving, an empty plastic bag can sometimes fly out the window. Why does this happen?

Problems&Exercises

Verify that pressure has units of energy per unit volume.

P = Force Area , ( P ) units = N/m 2 = N m/m 3 = J/m 3 = energy/volume alignl { stack { size 12{P= { {"Force"} over {"Area"} } ,} {} #size 12{ \( P \) rSub { size 8{"units"} } ="N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } =N cdot "m/m" rSup { size 8{3} } ="J/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} # ="energy/volume" {}} } {}

Suppose you have a wind speed gauge like the pitot tube shown in [link] (b). By what factor must wind speed increase to double the value of h size 12{h} {} in the manometer? Is this independent of the moving fluid and the fluid in the manometer?

If the pressure reading of your pitot tube is 15.0 mm Hg at a speed of 200 km/h, what will it be at 700 km/h at the same altitude?

184 mm Hg

Calculate the maximum height to which water could be squirted with the hose in [link] example if it: (a) Emerges from the nozzle. (b) Emerges with the nozzle removed, assuming the same flow rate.

Every few years, winds in Boulder, Colorado, attain sustained speeds of 45.0 m/s (about 100 mi/h) when the jet stream descends during early spring. Approximately what is the force due to the Bernoulli effect on a roof having an area of 220 m 2 size 12{"220"`m rSup { size 8{2} } } {} ? Typical air density in Boulder is 1 . 14 kg/m 3 size 12{1 "." "14"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} , and the corresponding atmospheric pressure is 8 . 89 × 10 4 N/m 2 size 12{8 "." "89" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . (Bernoulli’s principle as stated in the text assumes laminar flow. Using the principle here produces only an approximate result, because there is significant turbulence.)

2 . 54 × 10 5 N size 12{2 "." "54" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N"} {}

(a) Calculate the approximate force on a square meter of sail, given the horizontal velocity of the wind is 6.00 m/s parallel to its front surface and 3.50 m/s along its back surface. Take the density of air to be 1.29 kg /m 3 size 12{1 "." "29"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} . (The calculation, based on Bernoulli’s principle, is approximate due to the effects of turbulence.) (b) Discuss whether this force is great enough to be effective for propelling a sailboat.

(a) What is the pressure drop due to the Bernoulli effect as water goes into a 3.00-cm-diameter nozzle from a 9.00-cm-diameter fire hose while carrying a flow of 40.0 L/s? (b) To what maximum height above the nozzle can this water rise? (The actual height will be significantly smaller due to air resistance.)

(a) 1 . 58 × 10 6 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." "58" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

(b) 163 m

(a) Using Bernoulli’s equation, show that the measured fluid speed v for a pitot tube, like the one in [link] (b), is given by

v = 2 ρ gh ρ 1 / 2 , size 12{v= left ( { {2 { {ρ}} sup { ' }gh} over {ρ} } right ) rSup { size 8{ {1} slash {2} } } } {}

where h size 12{h} {} is the height of the manometer fluid, ρ size 12{ { {ρ}} sup { ' }} {} is the density of the manometer fluid, ρ size 12{ρ} {} is the density of the moving fluid, and g size 12{g} {} is the acceleration due to gravity. (Note that v size 12{v} {} is indeed proportional to the square root of h size 12{h} {} , as stated in the text.) (b) Calculate v size 12{v} {} for moving air if a mercury manometer’s h size 12{h} {} is 0.200 m.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, College physics (engineering physics 2, tuas). OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11649/1.2
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