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Calculating pressure: pressure drops as a fluid speeds up

In [link] , we found that the speed of water in a hose increased from 1.96 m/s to 25.5 m/s going from the hose to the nozzle. Calculate the pressure in the hose, given that the absolute pressure in the nozzle is 1 . 01 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." "01" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} (atmospheric, as it must be) and assuming level, frictionless flow.

Strategy

Level flow means constant depth, so Bernoulli’s principle applies. We use the subscript 1 for values in the hose and 2 for those in the nozzle. We are thus asked to find P 1 size 12{P rSub { size 8{1} } } {} .

Solution

Solving Bernoulli’s principle for P 1 size 12{P rSub { size 8{1} } } {} yields

P 1 = P 2 + 1 2 ρv 2 2 1 2 ρv 1 2 = P 2 + 1 2 ρ ( v 2 2 v 1 2 ) . size 12{P rSub { size 8{1} } =P rSub { size 8{2} } + { {1} over {2} } ρv rSub { size 8{2} } "" lSup { size 8{2} } - { {1} over {2} } ρv rSub { size 8{1} } "" lSup { size 8{2} } =P rSub { size 8{2} } + { {1} over {2} } ρ \( v rSub { size 8{2} } "" lSup { size 8{2} } - v rSub { size 8{1} } "" lSup { size 8{2} } \) "." } {}

Substituting known values,

P 1 = 1 . 01 × 10 5 N/m 2 + 1 2 ( 10 3 kg/m 3 ) ( 25.5 m/s ) 2 ( 1.96 m/s ) 2 = 4.24 × 10 5 N/m 2 .

Discussion

This absolute pressure in the hose is greater than in the nozzle, as expected since v is greater in the nozzle. The pressure P 2 size 12{P rSub { size 8{2} } } {} in the nozzle must be atmospheric since it emerges into the atmosphere without other changes in conditions.

Applications of bernoulli’s principle

There are a number of devices and situations in which fluid flows at a constant height and, thus, can be analyzed with Bernoulli’s principle.

Entrainment

People have long put the Bernoulli principle to work by using reduced pressure in high-velocity fluids to move things about. With a higher pressure on the outside, the high-velocity fluid forces other fluids into the stream. This process is called entrainment . Entrainment devices have been in use since ancient times, particularly as pumps to raise water small heights, as in draining swamps, fields, or other low-lying areas. Some other devices that use the concept of entrainment are shown in [link] .

Part a of the figure shows a rectangular section of a cylindrical Bunsen burner as a vertical column. The natural gas is shown to enter the rectangular column from the bottom upward. The air is shown to enter though a nozzle at the left side near the bottom part of the rectangular column and rise upward. Both air and natural gas are shown to rise up together along the length of the column, shown as vertical arrows along the length pointing upward. Part b of the figure shows an atomizer that uses a squeeze bulb in the shape of a small sphere to create a jet of air that entrains drops of perfume contained in a spherical bottomed container. The air is shown to come out of the squeeze bulb and the perfume is shown to rise up from the spherical bottomed container. Part c of the figure shows a common aspirator which contains a cylindrical tube held vertically. The tube is broader on the top and narrow at the bottom. Water is shown to enter the tube from the broader region and flow toward the narrow region. Air is shown to enter the cylindrical tube from the bottom part of the broader side and also flow toward the narrow tube. Part d of the figure shows the chimney of a water heater. Water heater is shown as a rectangular box at the bottom having a cylindrical section in the middle. The cylindrical section is broader at the bottom and narrow toward the top. Hot air is shown to rise up along the vertical section of the cylindrical tube. The chimney is conical at the bottom and rectangular upward and is shown above the rectangular water heater. The hot air enters the chimney at the conical end and rises upward. Cool air is shown to enter the chimney through the area between the rectangular section of heater and chimney from the two sides and rise up along the chimney with the hot air as shown by vertical arrows.
Examples of entrainment devices that use increased fluid speed to create low pressures, which then entrain one fluid into another. (a) A Bunsen burner uses an adjustable gas nozzle, entraining air for proper combustion. (b) An atomizer uses a squeeze bulb to create a jet of air that entrains drops of perfume. Paint sprayers and carburetors use very similar techniques to move their respective liquids. (c) A common aspirator uses a high-speed stream of water to create a region of lower pressure. Aspirators may be used as suction pumps in dental and surgical situations or for draining a flooded basement or producing a reduced pressure in a vessel. (d) The chimney of a water heater is designed to entrain air into the pipe leading through the ceiling.

Wings and sails

The airplane wing is a beautiful example of Bernoulli’s principle in action. [link] (a) shows the characteristic shape of a wing. The wing is tilted upward at a small angle and the upper surface is longer, causing air to flow faster over it. The pressure on top of the wing is therefore reduced, creating a net upward force or lift. (Wings can also gain lift by pushing air downward, utilizing the conservation of momentum principle. The deflected air molecules result in an upward force on the wing — Newton’s third law.) Sails also have the characteristic shape of a wing. (See [link] (b).) The pressure on the front side of the sail, P front size 12{P rSub { size 8{"front"} } } {} , is lower than the pressure on the back of the sail, P back size 12{P rSub { size 8{"back"} } } {} . This results in a forward force and even allows you to sail into the wind.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, College physics (engineering physics 2, tuas). OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11649/1.2
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