<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Calculating pressure: pressure drops as a fluid speeds up

In [link] , we found that the speed of water in a hose increased from 1.96 m/s to 25.5 m/s going from the hose to the nozzle. Calculate the pressure in the hose, given that the absolute pressure in the nozzle is 1 . 01 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." "01" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} (atmospheric, as it must be) and assuming level, frictionless flow.

Strategy

Level flow means constant depth, so Bernoulli’s principle applies. We use the subscript 1 for values in the hose and 2 for those in the nozzle. We are thus asked to find P 1 size 12{P rSub { size 8{1} } } {} .

Solution

Solving Bernoulli’s principle for P 1 size 12{P rSub { size 8{1} } } {} yields

P 1 = P 2 + 1 2 ρv 2 2 1 2 ρv 1 2 = P 2 + 1 2 ρ ( v 2 2 v 1 2 ) . size 12{P rSub { size 8{1} } =P rSub { size 8{2} } + { {1} over {2} } ρv rSub { size 8{2} } "" lSup { size 8{2} } - { {1} over {2} } ρv rSub { size 8{1} } "" lSup { size 8{2} } =P rSub { size 8{2} } + { {1} over {2} } ρ \( v rSub { size 8{2} } "" lSup { size 8{2} } - v rSub { size 8{1} } "" lSup { size 8{2} } \) "." } {}

Substituting known values,

P 1 = 1 . 01 × 10 5 N/m 2 + 1 2 ( 10 3 kg/m 3 ) ( 25.5 m/s ) 2 ( 1.96 m/s ) 2 = 4.24 × 10 5 N/m 2 .

Discussion

This absolute pressure in the hose is greater than in the nozzle, as expected since v is greater in the nozzle. The pressure P 2 size 12{P rSub { size 8{2} } } {} in the nozzle must be atmospheric since it emerges into the atmosphere without other changes in conditions.

Applications of bernoulli’s principle

There are a number of devices and situations in which fluid flows at a constant height and, thus, can be analyzed with Bernoulli’s principle.

Entrainment

People have long put the Bernoulli principle to work by using reduced pressure in high-velocity fluids to move things about. With a higher pressure on the outside, the high-velocity fluid forces other fluids into the stream. This process is called entrainment . Entrainment devices have been in use since ancient times, particularly as pumps to raise water small heights, as in draining swamps, fields, or other low-lying areas. Some other devices that use the concept of entrainment are shown in [link] .

Part a of the figure shows a rectangular section of a cylindrical Bunsen burner as a vertical column. The natural gas is shown to enter the rectangular column from the bottom upward. The air is shown to enter though a nozzle at the left side near the bottom part of the rectangular column and rise upward. Both air and natural gas are shown to rise up together along the length of the column, shown as vertical arrows along the length pointing upward. Part b of the figure shows an atomizer that uses a squeeze bulb in the shape of a small sphere to create a jet of air that entrains drops of perfume contained in a spherical bottomed container. The air is shown to come out of the squeeze bulb and the perfume is shown to rise up from the spherical bottomed container. Part c of the figure shows a common aspirator which contains a cylindrical tube held vertically. The tube is broader on the top and narrow at the bottom. Water is shown to enter the tube from the broader region and flow toward the narrow region. Air is shown to enter the cylindrical tube from the bottom part of the broader side and also flow toward the narrow tube. Part d of the figure shows the chimney of a water heater. Water heater is shown as a rectangular box at the bottom having a cylindrical section in the middle. The cylindrical section is broader at the bottom and narrow toward the top. Hot air is shown to rise up along the vertical section of the cylindrical tube. The chimney is conical at the bottom and rectangular upward and is shown above the rectangular water heater. The hot air enters the chimney at the conical end and rises upward. Cool air is shown to enter the chimney through the area between the rectangular section of heater and chimney from the two sides and rise up along the chimney with the hot air as shown by vertical arrows.
Examples of entrainment devices that use increased fluid speed to create low pressures, which then entrain one fluid into another. (a) A Bunsen burner uses an adjustable gas nozzle, entraining air for proper combustion. (b) An atomizer uses a squeeze bulb to create a jet of air that entrains drops of perfume. Paint sprayers and carburetors use very similar techniques to move their respective liquids. (c) A common aspirator uses a high-speed stream of water to create a region of lower pressure. Aspirators may be used as suction pumps in dental and surgical situations or for draining a flooded basement or producing a reduced pressure in a vessel. (d) The chimney of a water heater is designed to entrain air into the pipe leading through the ceiling.

Wings and sails

The airplane wing is a beautiful example of Bernoulli’s principle in action. [link] (a) shows the characteristic shape of a wing. The wing is tilted upward at a small angle and the upper surface is longer, causing air to flow faster over it. The pressure on top of the wing is therefore reduced, creating a net upward force or lift. (Wings can also gain lift by pushing air downward, utilizing the conservation of momentum principle. The deflected air molecules result in an upward force on the wing — Newton’s third law.) Sails also have the characteristic shape of a wing. (See [link] (b).) The pressure on the front side of the sail, P front size 12{P rSub { size 8{"front"} } } {} , is lower than the pressure on the back of the sail, P back size 12{P rSub { size 8{"back"} } } {} . This results in a forward force and even allows you to sail into the wind.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply
Practice Key Terms 2

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, College physics (engineering physics 2, tuas). OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11649/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'College physics (engineering physics 2, tuas)' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask