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A catchment area

  • The sizes of catchment areas vary greatly. Most of South Africa's large storage dams get their water from such mountain catchment areas.

There is a close relationship between soil conservation and the use of water from catchment areas. Dense vegetation prevents soil erosion to a large extent. Where the vegetation is removed, especially on steep slopes, rainwater flows fast and the danger that a flash flood can occur is increased. This happened in 1981, when a flood caused serious damage to Laingsburg. When fertile topsoil is removed, storage dams and river mouths become silted up as the soil is deposited in these places.

The fynbos kingdom, which is unique to the Western Cape, is threatened by urbanisation, planting of forests and deforestation in the catchment areas. It is important to protect catchment areas. Most of the plants in the fynbos kingdom are small, hardy and spiky to reduce loss of water during the dry summer months. Some well-known plants from this kingdom are the Ericas, Proteas and the Restios, which are grass-like members of the reed family.

  • Invader plants like pine trees have been planted in many places in the catchment areas. Amongst other things, pine trees, together with hakea and Australian acacia species, disturb the natural balance of the river ecosystems of the Western Cape.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE WATER IN THE RIVERS.

  • All of us must share the responsibility of using water resources responsibly. Every person can make a contribution by becoming involved in our own communities. In this way we can also assist governing bodies and make it easier for them to function.
  • All of us need inland water for personal use and we must remember that overpopulation and mismanagement of our limited resources is not a new problem. The Greek philosopher Plato was already complaining about environmental degradation two thousand years ago.
  • POLLUTION refers to any substance that has a harmful effect on the natural environment. The pollutants might be in the atmosphere, or may occur in water that flows through any part of the catchment area. Pollutants may be very difficult to identify and control.
  • ARTIFICIAL FERTILISERS are used by farmers to ensure bigger harvests. These nutrients are washed away in rivers. This encourages the growth of algae, which reduces the amount of oxygen in the water.
  • RUBBISH like tins and plastic bags block up small streams.
  • SEWERAGE water is rich in organic substances and nutrients that also reduce oxygen levels in the water during decomposition. This destroys many species of life that occur in rivers.
  • HEAT POLLUTION is caused by pumping warm water into rivers and lakes.
  • TOXIC CHEMICALS and heavy metals build up in living tissue and increase over time. This inevitably leads to the death of numbers of plants and animals.
  • SOLID WASTE MATERIALS like soil particles from eroded land, mining activities, coal, dust and builder's rubble also flow along down streams. This suffocates water creatures and their eggs, block up the gills of fish and buries food sources.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11079/1.1
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