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A second downside of this representation is called the curse of dimensionality . Suppose S = R n , and we discretize each of the n dimensions of the state into k values. Then the total number of discrete states we have is k n . This grows exponentially quickly in the dimension of the state space n , and thus does not scale well to large problems. For example, with a 10d state,if we discretize each state variable into 100 values, we would have 100 10 = 10 20 discrete states, which is far too many to represent even on a modern desktop computer.

As a rule of thumb, discretization usually works extremely well for 1d and 2d problems (and has the advantage of being simple and quick to implement).Perhaps with a little bit of cleverness and some care in choosing the discretization method, it often works well for problems with up to 4d states. Ifyou're extremely clever, and somewhat lucky, you may even get it to work for some 6d problems. But it very rarely works for problems any higherdimensional than that.

Value function approximation

We now describe an alternative method for finding policies in continuous-state MDPs, in which we approximate V * directly, without resorting to discretization. This approach, caled value function approximation, has been successfully applied to many RL problems.

Using a model or simulator

To develop a value function approximation algorithm, we will assume that we have a model , or simulator , for the MDP. Informally, a simulator is a black-box that takes as input any (continuous-valued) state s t and action a t , and outputs a next-state s t + 1 sampled according to the state transition probabilities P s t a t :

s_t and a_t enter into a simulator and the products are s_t+1 equivilant to P_sa

simulation. For example, the simulator for the inverted pendulum in PS4 was obtained by using the laws of physics to calculate what position andorientation the cart/pole will be in at time t + 1 , given the current state at time t and the action a taken, assuming that we know all the parameters of the system such as the length of the pole, the mass of the pole, and so on.Alternatively, one can also use an off-the-shelf physics simulation software package which takes as input a complete physical description of a mechanicalsystem, the current state s t and action a t , and computes the state s t + 1 of the system a small fraction of a second into the future. Open Dynamics Engine (http://www.ode.com) is one example of a free/open-source physics simulator that can be used to simulate systems like theinverted pendulum, and that has been a reasonably popular choice among RL researchers.

An alternative way to get a model is to learn one from data collected in the MDP. For example, suppose we execute m trials in which we repeatedly take actions in an MDP, each trial for T timesteps. This can be done picking actions at random, executing some specific policy, or via some other way of choosing actions. We would then observe m state sequences like the following:

s 0 ( 1 ) a 0 ( 1 ) s 1 ( 1 ) a 1 ( 1 ) s 2 ( 1 ) a 2 ( 1 ) a T - 1 ( 1 ) s T ( 1 ) s 0 ( 2 ) a 0 ( 2 ) s 1 ( 2 ) a 1 ( 2 ) s 2 ( 2 ) a 2 ( 2 ) a T - 1 ( 2 ) s T ( 2 ) s 0 ( m ) a 0 ( m ) s 1 ( m ) a 1 ( m ) s 2 ( m ) a 2 ( m ) a T - 1 ( m ) s T ( m )

We can then apply a learning algorithm to predict s t + 1 as a function of s t and a t .

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Machine learning. OpenStax CNX. Oct 14, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11500/1.4
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