# 2.1 Yielding limit state

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#### Introduction to yielding

The limit state of yielding must be considered in tension members to prevent failure from deformation. "To prevent excessivedeformation, initiated by yielding, the load on the gross section must be small enough that the stress on the gross section is lessthan the yield stress ${F}_{y}$ ."

#### Equations for yielding

${\phi }_{t}=0.90$
${P}_{n}={F}_{y}{A}_{g}$

Here the design strength of the tension members is ${\phi }_{t}{P}_{n}$ where:

• ${A}_{g}$ = gross area of member, ${in.}^{2}$
• ${F}_{y}$ = specified minimum yield stress, ksi

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