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v p y x = - ω k = v

v p = v y x

At a given position “x” and time “t”, the particle velocity is related to wave speed by this equation. Note that direction of particle velocity is determined by the sign of slope as wave speed is a positive quantity. We can interpret direction of motion of the particles on the string by observing “y-x” plot of a wave form. We know that “y-x” plot is a description of wave form at a particular time instant. It is important to emphasize that a wave like representation does not show the motion of wave. An arrow showing the direction of wave motion gives the sense of motion. The wave form is a snapshot (hence stationary) at a particular instant. We can, however, assess the direction of particle velocity by just assessing the slope at any position x=x. See the plot shown in the figure below :

Particle velocity

Particle velocity and slope of waveform.

The slope at “A” is positive and hence particle velocity is negative. It means that particle at this position - at the instant waveform is captured in the figure - is moving towards mean (or equilibrium) position. The slope at “B” is negative and hence particle velocity is positive. It means that particle at this position - at the instant waveform is captured in the figure - is moving towards positive extreme position. The slope at “C” is negative and hence particle velocity is positive. It means that particle at this position - at the instant waveform is captured in the figure - is moving towards mean (or equilibrium) position. The slope at “D” is positive and hence particle velocity is negative. It means that particle at this position - at the instant waveform is captured in the figure - is moving towards negative extreme position.

We can crosscheck or collaborate the deductions drawn as above by drawing wave form at another close instant t = t+∆t. We can visualize the direction of velocity by assessing the direction in which the particle at a position has moved in the small time interval considered.

Particle velocity

Particle velocity and slope of waveform.

Different forms of wave function

Different forms give rise to a bit of confusion about the form of wave function. The forms used for describing waves are :

y x , t = A sin k x ω t

y x , t = A sin ω t k x

Which of the two forms is correct? In fact, both are correct so long we are in a position to accurately interpret the equation. Starting with the first equation and using trigonometric identity :

sin θ = sin π θ

We have,

A sin k x ω t = A sin π k x + ω t = = A sin ω t k x + π

Thus we see that two forms represent waves moving at the same speed ( v = ω / k ). They differ, however, in phase. There is phase difference of “π”. This has implication on the waveform and the manner particle oscillates at any given time instant and position. Let us consider two waveforms at x=0, t=0. The slopes of the waveforms are :

x y x , t = k A cos k x ω t = k A = a positive number

and

x y x , t = k A cos ω t k x = k A = a negative number

Forms of wave functions

Exchange of terms in the argument of sine function results in a phase difference of π.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Oscillation and wave motion. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10493/1.12
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