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Conflict of interests

If the foraging strategy hypothesis adequately explains sexual cannibalism, then one would expect male mantises and spiders to be complicit in their own self-sacrifice. Since males can improve fitness by investing their body as their mate’s food source, evolution should select for a willingness to be consumed (Lelito and Brown 2006). The advantage of complicit self-sacrifice is especially apparent in mantis species, because the male’s decapitation often triggers a mechanism that increases the rate and effectiveness of sperm transfer (Liske 1991).
picture of female praying mantis being mounted by a male she has decapitated
A female mantis is mounted by a male who she has already decapitated. In mantises, insemination can occur during or after cannibalism. Decapitation may even increase the rate of copulation (Liske 1991). Image :Taurusaficionado http://www.flickr.com/photos/ .

Nonetheless, in several species, male compliance does not occur. Males of both mantis and spider species have evolved various precautionary behaviors designed to thwart female attack.

chart comparing female hunger treatment to male approach
Relationship in Tenodera sinensis between female hunger treatment, male orientation of approach, and speed with which males approached females. Males approached females more quickly from behind (not in female’s direct line of sight), and approached satiated females more quickly ( P < 0.0001 , P adj < 0.00055 ).
For example, in one study, praying mantis males tended to mount females from low-risk positions (out of the female’s range of mandible reach) (Birkhead et al. 1988). Also, Hierodula membranacea mantis males approached females more actively (with fewer hesitant pauses) when experimental conditions imitated a cover of nighttime darkness (Birkhead et al. 1988). Finally, male Chinese praying mantises neared females in a crouching stance, approached them only when they were turned away, and mounted them in a sudden leaping motion that left little opportunity for pre-copulatory cannibalism (Liske and Davis 1987)
chart comparing female hunger treatment to male approach and leaping distance
Relationship in Tenodera sinensis between female hunger treatment, male orientation of approach, and distance from which males leapt onto the backs of females. Males leapt onto hungry females from a longer distance away ( P < 0.001 , P adj < 0.0044 )(Lelito and Brown 2006).
These diverse and often sophisticated protection mechanisms would not have evolved if males gained ultimate fitness benefit from self-sacrifice ( [link] ). Females may increase the vitality of a male’s offspring by consuming him, but evidently not enough to offset his cost in death. The functional design of male mating behavior displays noncompliance, exhibiting a conflict of interest between male and cannibalistic females (Lelito and Brown 2006).


Counteradaptations and cryptic female choice

Conflicts between interacting organisms can drive adaptation and counteradaptation. Individuals evolve traits that provide them with the greatest benefit possible from social interactions, even at the cost of another organism. Thus, two organisms may steadily interact through a system of “one-upmanship,” as each develops counteradaptations to exploit, and avoid being exploited by, the other.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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