# 2.1 To eat or to mate? sexual cannibalism in mantodea and arachnid  (Page 5/15)

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## Conflict of interests

If the foraging strategy hypothesis adequately explains sexual cannibalism, then one would expect male mantises and spiders to be complicit in their own self-sacrifice. Since males can improve fitness by investing their body as their mate’s food source, evolution should select for a willingness to be consumed (Lelito and Brown 2006). The advantage of complicit self-sacrifice is especially apparent in mantis species, because the male’s decapitation often triggers a mechanism that increases the rate and effectiveness of sperm transfer (Liske 1991).

Nonetheless, in several species, male compliance does not occur. Males of both mantis and spider species have evolved various precautionary behaviors designed to thwart female attack.

For example, in one study, praying mantis males tended to mount females from low-risk positions (out of the female’s range of mandible reach) (Birkhead et al. 1988). Also, Hierodula membranacea mantis males approached females more actively (with fewer hesitant pauses) when experimental conditions imitated a cover of nighttime darkness (Birkhead et al. 1988). Finally, male Chinese praying mantises neared females in a crouching stance, approached them only when they were turned away, and mounted them in a sudden leaping motion that left little opportunity for pre-copulatory cannibalism (Liske and Davis 1987) These diverse and often sophisticated protection mechanisms would not have evolved if males gained ultimate fitness benefit from self-sacrifice ( [link] ). Females may increase the vitality of a male’s offspring by consuming him, but evidently not enough to offset his cost in death. The functional design of male mating behavior displays noncompliance, exhibiting a conflict of interest between male and cannibalistic females (Lelito and Brown 2006).

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## Counteradaptations and cryptic female choice

Conflicts between interacting organisms can drive adaptation and counteradaptation. Individuals evolve traits that provide them with the greatest benefit possible from social interactions, even at the cost of another organism. Thus, two organisms may steadily interact through a system of “one-upmanship,” as each develops counteradaptations to exploit, and avoid being exploited by, the other.

#### Questions & Answers

what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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