<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Conflict of interests

If the foraging strategy hypothesis adequately explains sexual cannibalism, then one would expect male mantises and spiders to be complicit in their own self-sacrifice. Since males can improve fitness by investing their body as their mate’s food source, evolution should select for a willingness to be consumed (Lelito and Brown 2006). The advantage of complicit self-sacrifice is especially apparent in mantis species, because the male’s decapitation often triggers a mechanism that increases the rate and effectiveness of sperm transfer (Liske 1991).
picture of female praying mantis being mounted by a male she has decapitated
A female mantis is mounted by a male who she has already decapitated. In mantises, insemination can occur during or after cannibalism. Decapitation may even increase the rate of copulation (Liske 1991). Image :Taurusaficionado http://www.flickr.com/photos/ .

Nonetheless, in several species, male compliance does not occur. Males of both mantis and spider species have evolved various precautionary behaviors designed to thwart female attack.

chart comparing female hunger treatment to male approach
Relationship in Tenodera sinensis between female hunger treatment, male orientation of approach, and speed with which males approached females. Males approached females more quickly from behind (not in female’s direct line of sight), and approached satiated females more quickly ( P < 0.0001 , P adj < 0.00055 ).
For example, in one study, praying mantis males tended to mount females from low-risk positions (out of the female’s range of mandible reach) (Birkhead et al. 1988). Also, Hierodula membranacea mantis males approached females more actively (with fewer hesitant pauses) when experimental conditions imitated a cover of nighttime darkness (Birkhead et al. 1988). Finally, male Chinese praying mantises neared females in a crouching stance, approached them only when they were turned away, and mounted them in a sudden leaping motion that left little opportunity for pre-copulatory cannibalism (Liske and Davis 1987)
chart comparing female hunger treatment to male approach and leaping distance
Relationship in Tenodera sinensis between female hunger treatment, male orientation of approach, and distance from which males leapt onto the backs of females. Males leapt onto hungry females from a longer distance away ( P < 0.001 , P adj < 0.0044 )(Lelito and Brown 2006).
These diverse and often sophisticated protection mechanisms would not have evolved if males gained ultimate fitness benefit from self-sacrifice ( [link] ). Females may increase the vitality of a male’s offspring by consuming him, but evidently not enough to offset his cost in death. The functional design of male mating behavior displays noncompliance, exhibiting a conflict of interest between male and cannibalistic females (Lelito and Brown 2006).

Box

Counteradaptations and cryptic female choice

Conflicts between interacting organisms can drive adaptation and counteradaptation. Individuals evolve traits that provide them with the greatest benefit possible from social interactions, even at the cost of another organism. Thus, two organisms may steadily interact through a system of “one-upmanship,” as each develops counteradaptations to exploit, and avoid being exploited by, the other.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask