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Conflict of interests

If the foraging strategy hypothesis adequately explains sexual cannibalism, then one would expect male mantises and spiders to be complicit in their own self-sacrifice. Since males can improve fitness by investing their body as their mate’s food source, evolution should select for a willingness to be consumed (Lelito and Brown 2006). The advantage of complicit self-sacrifice is especially apparent in mantis species, because the male’s decapitation often triggers a mechanism that increases the rate and effectiveness of sperm transfer (Liske 1991).
picture of female praying mantis being mounted by a male she has decapitated
A female mantis is mounted by a male who she has already decapitated. In mantises, insemination can occur during or after cannibalism. Decapitation may even increase the rate of copulation (Liske 1991). Image :Taurusaficionado http://www.flickr.com/photos/ .

Nonetheless, in several species, male compliance does not occur. Males of both mantis and spider species have evolved various precautionary behaviors designed to thwart female attack.

chart comparing female hunger treatment to male approach
Relationship in Tenodera sinensis between female hunger treatment, male orientation of approach, and speed with which males approached females. Males approached females more quickly from behind (not in female’s direct line of sight), and approached satiated females more quickly ( P < 0.0001 , P adj < 0.00055 ).
For example, in one study, praying mantis males tended to mount females from low-risk positions (out of the female’s range of mandible reach) (Birkhead et al. 1988). Also, Hierodula membranacea mantis males approached females more actively (with fewer hesitant pauses) when experimental conditions imitated a cover of nighttime darkness (Birkhead et al. 1988). Finally, male Chinese praying mantises neared females in a crouching stance, approached them only when they were turned away, and mounted them in a sudden leaping motion that left little opportunity for pre-copulatory cannibalism (Liske and Davis 1987)
chart comparing female hunger treatment to male approach and leaping distance
Relationship in Tenodera sinensis between female hunger treatment, male orientation of approach, and distance from which males leapt onto the backs of females. Males leapt onto hungry females from a longer distance away ( P < 0.001 , P adj < 0.0044 )(Lelito and Brown 2006).
These diverse and often sophisticated protection mechanisms would not have evolved if males gained ultimate fitness benefit from self-sacrifice ( [link] ). Females may increase the vitality of a male’s offspring by consuming him, but evidently not enough to offset his cost in death. The functional design of male mating behavior displays noncompliance, exhibiting a conflict of interest between male and cannibalistic females (Lelito and Brown 2006).

Box

Counteradaptations and cryptic female choice

Conflicts between interacting organisms can drive adaptation and counteradaptation. Individuals evolve traits that provide them with the greatest benefit possible from social interactions, even at the cost of another organism. Thus, two organisms may steadily interact through a system of “one-upmanship,” as each develops counteradaptations to exploit, and avoid being exploited by, the other.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
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Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
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Rafiq
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Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
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What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
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Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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research.net
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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s. Reply
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are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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