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The organisms

Sexual cannibalism has been observed in 30 arthropod species, and occurs in all arachnids and three orders of insects [Figures 10-12]. One of these orders is Mantodea, which is comprised of about 2,000 mantis species worldwide, mostly within the family mantidae (Yagar and Svenson 2008). Mantises are highly predatory organisms, employing an ambush technique in which they camouflage themselves to wait for prey, then strike rapidly once food approaches. Most mantis species have spiked, muscular forelegs called raptorial legs, which are designed for gripping a range of prey, including lizards, frogs, birds, snakes, rodents, insects, and, of course, mates (Yagar and Svenson 2008).

Between sexually mature adults, attraction typically occurs via visual cues and the use of pheromones, which the females release during the nighttime (the organisms’ prime mating period) (Robinson and Robinson 1979). In order to mate, the male approaches the female, leaps onto her back, and uses his forelegs to grip her thorax and wings. Males transfer sperm from their abdomen into a chamber at the tip of the female’s own abdomen. Mothers can be polyandrous, mating with several males during a reproductive season (the number of males varies with the mating season). Eventually, she deposits as many as 400 eggs in a frothy mixture secreted by abdominal glands, which hardens into a clumped egg mass called an ootheca. After oviposition, mantis mothers almost always abandon the ootheca, increasing the importance of the nutrients and protective protein coat she originally invests in the egg mass.

ootheca from a praying mantis
A deposited ootheca from a praying mantis (Mantis religiosa). Egg clusters are typically abandoned after oviposition by female mantises (Robinson and Robinson 1979). Image :TarynMarie http://www.flickr.com/photos/tarynmarie/233251370/ .

Mantises exhibit moderate sexual size dimorphism ( Iris oratoria males, for example, are 49% the size of females), which improves the female’s ease of cannibalizing the male (Barry et al. 2008). An estimated 63% of the diet of female Chinese mantises ( Tenodera sinensis ) is derived from cannibalized mates (Fox 1975b). Even in species that rarely exhibit sexual cannibalism, the behavior can be a major source of population mortality if it occurs in a specific seasonal or life cycle frame (Fox 1975b). Thus, sexual cannibalism is a crucial component of mantis behavior.

picture of female praying mantis cannibalizing mate
A praying mantis ( Mantis religiosa ) clutches the head of a cannibalized mate. Female mantises may substantially improve reproductive output by engaging in sexual cannibalism before, during, or after copulation (Barry et al. 2008). Image :TarynMarie http://www.flickr.com/photos/tarynmarie/233251370/ .
A wide range of spider species also engage in sexual cannibalism, including wolf spiders, orb-weaving garden spiders, and Australian redback spiders. Though mating tactics, insemination techniques, and oviposition timing vary depending on the species, several common factors affect spider reproduction. Firstly, high sexual size dimorphism is common in spiders, and females can be over 100 times bigger than males (Schneider and Lubin 1998). Secondly, female spiders are typically polyandrous, though wide population dispersal and harsh environmental conditions can limit mating opportunities. When they do find mates, male spiders use palpal emboli (pedipalp) to inject sperm into female storage organs, and their confidence in paternity can be affected by the number of palpal insertions (Andrade and Snow 2005). However, as a tradeoff to trying to ensure paternity, males may incur physical damage from either cannibalism or the loss of their palpal emboli tips during insertion.

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
felecia
_½+⅔-¾
felecia
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
Pawel
ok
Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
felecia
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
hello, I am happy to help!
Shirley Reply
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
Abdullahi
hi mam
Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
yes i wantt to review
Mark
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
please help me prove quadratic formula
Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
thank you help me with how to prove the quadratic equation
Seidu
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Opoku
what is math number
Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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