# 2.1 Multiplication of whole numbers  (Page 2/3)

 Page 2 / 3 The product is 16,236.

## Practice set b

Find the following products.

185

624

3,752

320,152

904,797

## The multiplication process with a multiple digit multiplier

In a multiplication in which the multiplier is composed of two or more digits, the multiplication must take place in parts . The process is as follows:

• First Partial Product Multiply the multiplicand by the ones digit of the multiplier. This product is called the first partial product .
• Second Partial Product Multiply the multiplicand by the tens digit of the multiplier. This product is called the second partial product . Since the tens digit is used as a factor, the second partial product is written below the first partial product so that its rightmost digit appears in the tens column.
• If necessary, continue this way finding partial products. Write each one below the previous one so that the rightmost digit appears in the column directly below the digit that was used as a factor.
• Total Product Add the partial products to obtain the total product .

It may be necessary to carry when finding each partial product.

## Sample set c

Multiply 326 by 48.

• • • This step is unnecessary since all of the digits in the multiplier have been used.
• Add the partial products to obtain the total product. • The product is 15,648.

Multiply 5,369 by 842.

• • • • The product is 4,520,698.

Multiply 1,508 by 206.

• • Since 0 times 1508 is 0, the partial product will not change the identity of the total product (which is obtained by addition). Go to the next partial product.

• • The product is 310,648

## Practice set c

Multiply 73 by 14.

1,022

Multiply 86 by 52.

4,472

Multiply 419 by 85.

35,615

Multiply 2,376 by 613.

1,456,488

Multiply 8,107 by 304.

2,464,528

Multiply 66,260 by 1,008.

66,790,080

Multiply 209 by 501.

104,709

Multiply 24 by 10.

240

Multiply 3,809 by 1,000.

3,809,000

Multiply 813 by 10,000.

8,130,000

## Multiplications with numbers ending in zero

Often, when performing a multiplication, one or both of the factors will end in zeros. Such multiplications can be done quickly by aligning the numbers so that the rightmost nonzero digits are in the same column.

## Sample set d

Perform the multiplication $\left(\text{49},\text{000}\right)\left(1,\text{200}\right)$ .

Since 9 and 2 are the rightmost nonzero digits, put them in the same column. Draw (perhaps mentally) a vertical line to separate the zeros from the nonzeros. Multiply the numbers to the left of the vertical line as usual, then attach to the right end of this product the total number of zeros. The product is 58,800,000

## Practice set d

Multiply 1,800 by 90.

162,000

Multiply 420,000 by 300.

126,000,000

Multiply 20,500,000 by 140,000.

2,870,000,000,000

## Calculators

Most multiplications are performed using a calculator.

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I think
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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