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As a practical matter, creating a genuine history of success is most convincing if teachers also work to broaden a student’s vision of “thepast.” Younger students (elementary-age) in particular have relatively short or limited ideas of what counts as “past experience;” theymay go back only a few occasions when forming impressions of whether they cansucceed again in the future (Eccles, et al., 1998). Older students (secondary school) gradually develop longer views of their personal “pasts,”both because of improvements in memory and because of accumulating a personal history that is truly longer. The challenge for working with any age, however,is to ensure that students base self-efficacy beliefs on all relevant experiences from their pasts, not just on selected or recent experiences.

Watching others’ experiences of mastery

A second source of efficacy beliefs comes from vicarious experience of mastery, or observing others’ successes (Schunk&Zimmerman, 1997). Simply seeing someone else succeed at a task, in other words, can contribute tobelieving that you, too, can succeed. The effect is stronger when the observer lacks experience with the task and therefore may be unsure of his or her ownability. It is also stronger when the model is someone respected by the observer, such as a student’s teacher, or a peer with generallycomparable ability. Even under these conditions, though, vicarious experience is not as influential as direct experience. The reasons are not hard toimagine.

Suppose, for example, you witness both your teacher and a respected friend succeed at singing a favorite tune, but you are unsure whether you personallycan sing. In that case you may feel encouraged about your own potential, but are likely still to feel somewhat uncertain of your own efficacy. If on theother hand you do not witness others’ singing, but you have a history of singing well yourself, it is a different story. In that case you are likely to believe in yourefficacy, regardless of how others perform.

All of which suggests that to a modest extent, teachers may be able to enhance students’ self-efficacy by modeling success at a task or by pointing outclassmates who are successful. These strategies can work because they not only show how to do a task, but also communicate a more fundamental message, thefact that the task can in fact be done. If students are learning a difficult arithmetic procedure, for example, you can help by demonstrating the procedure, or by pointing outclassmates who are doing it. Note, though, that vicarious mastery is helpful only if backed up with real successes performed by the students themselves. Itis also helpful only if the “model classmates” are perceived as truly comparable in ability. Overuse of vicarious models, especially in theabsence of real success by learners, can cause learners to disqualify a model’s success; students may simply decide that the model is “outof their league” in skills and is therefore irrelevant to judging their own potential.

Expectancy-value theory

By now, it should be clear that motivation is affected by several factors, including reinforcement for behavior, but especially also students’ goals,interests, and sense of self-efficacy. The factors combine to create two general sources of motivation: students’ expectation of success and thevalue that students place on a goal. Viewing motivation in this way is often called the expectancy-value model of motivation (Wigfield&Eccles, 2002; Wigfield, Tonk,&Eccles, 2004), and sometimes written with a multiplicative formula: expectancy x value = motivation. The relationshipbetween expectation and value is “multiplicative” rather than additive because in order to be motivated, it is necessary for a person to haveat least a modest expectation of success and to assign a task at least some positive value. If you have high expectations of success but do not value atask at all (mentally assign it a “0” value), then you will not feel motivated at all. Likewise, if you value a task highly but have noexpectation of success about completing it (assign it a “0” expectancy), then you also will not feel motivated at all. Dr. Eccles explainsExpectancy-Value theory in the classroom in this brief article .

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
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Source:  OpenStax, Oneonta epsy 275. OpenStax CNX. Jun 11, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11446/1.6
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