# 2.1 Markov decision -- type 3 gains  (Page 2/2)

 Page 2 / 2

The calculations

```orderdata reorderEnter row vector of states states Enter row vector A of actions (padded) AEnter row vector C of order costs (padded) C Enter row vector D of demand values DEnter row vector PD of demand probabilities PD Enter unit selling price SP SPEnter backorder penalty cost BP BP PA =1.0000 0 0 0 0 0.6000 0.2000 0.2000 0 00.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.8000 0.2000 0 0 00.4000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0 0.4000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 00.6000 0.2000 0.2000 0 0 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.20000.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.4000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 00.4000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0 0.4000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 00.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.20000.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 GA =0 -40 -80 -120 -160 -300 -100 100 60 20-480 -280 -80 120 320 0 200 160 120 80-300 -100 100 300 260 -300 -100 100 300 2600 200 400 360 320 -300 -100 100 300 500-300 -100 100 300 500 0 200 400 600 5600 200 400 600 560 0 200 400 600 5600 200 400 600 800 0 200 400 600 8000 200 400 600 800```

## Infinite-horizon strategy (no discounting)

```polit Data needed:- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Enter type number to show gain type typeEnter row vector of states states Enter row vector A of possible actions AEnter value of alpha (= 1 for no discounting) 1 Enter matrix PA of transition probabilities PAEnter matrix GA of gains GA Enter row vector PD of demand probabilities PDIndex Action Value 1 0 -802 2 -44 3 4 -804 0 1125 2 52 6 2 527 0 256 8 2 1009 2 100 10 0 35211 0 352 12 0 35213 0 400 14 0 40015 0 400 Initial policy: action numbers2 1 1 1 1 Policy: actions2 0 0 0 0 New policy: action numbers3 2 2 1 1 Policy: actions4 2 2 0 0 Long-run distribution0.2800 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.1200 Test values for selecting new policyIndex Action Test Value 1.0000 0 -248.00002.0000 2.0000 -168.8000 3.0000 4.0000 -41.60004.0000 0 -48.8000 5.0000 2.0000 -5.60006.0000 2.0000 -5.6000 7.0000 0 131.20008.0000 2.0000 138.4000 9.0000 2.0000 138.400010.0000 0 294.4000 11.0000 0 294.400012.0000 0 294.4000 13.0000 0 438.400014.0000 0 438.4000 15.0000 0 438.4000Optimum policy State Action Value0 4.0000 -168.0000 1.0000 2.0000 -132.00002.0000 2.0000 12.0000 3.0000 0 168.00004.0000 0 312.0000 Long-run expected gain per period G126.4000```

## Infinite-horizon strategy (with discounting)

```polit Data needed:- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Enter case number to show gain type typeEnter row vector of states states Enter row vector A of possible actions AEnter value of alpha (= 1 for no discounting) 1/1.02 Enter matrix PA of transition probabilities PAEnter matrix GA of gains GA Enter row vector PD of demand probabilities PDIndex Action Value 1 0 -802 2 -44 3 4 -804 0 112 5 2 526 2 52 7 0 2568 2 100 9 2 10010 0 352 11 0 35212 0 352 13 0 40014 0 400 15 0 400Initial policy: action numbers 2 1 1 1 1Policy: actions 2 0 0 0 0New policy: action numbers 3 2 2 1 1Policy: actions 4 2 2 0 0Test values for selecting policy Index Action Test Value1.0e+03 * 0.0010 0 6.07460.0020 0.0020 6.1533 0.0030 0.0040 6.27760.0040 0 6.2740 0.0050 0.0020 6.31550.0060 0.0020 6.3155 0.0070 0 6.45330.0080 0.0020 6.4576 0.0090 0.0020 6.45760.0100 0 6.6155 0.0110 0 6.61550.0120 0 6.6155 0.0130 0 6.75760.0140 0 6.7576 0.0150 0 6.7576Optimum policy State Action Value1.0e+03 * 0 0.0040 6.27760.0010 0.0020 6.3155 0.0020 0.0020 6.45760.0030 0 6.6155 0.0040 0 6.7576```

## Finite-horizon calculations

```dpinit Initialize for finite horizon calculationsMatrices A, PA, and GA, padded if necessary Enter type number to show gain type typeEnter vector of states states Enter row vector A of possible actions AEnter matrix PA of transition probabilities PA Enter matrix GA of gains GAEnter row vector PD of demand probabilities PD Call for dprogdprog States and expected total gains0 1 2 3 4 -44 112 256 352 400States Actions 0 21 0 2 03 0 4 0dprog States and expected total gains0 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 4.0000 135.2000 178.4000 315.2000 478.4000 615.2000States Actions 0 41 2 2 23 0 4 0dprog States and expected total gains0 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 4.0000 264.4800 300.4800 444.4800 600.4800 744.4800States Actions 0 41 2 2 23 0 4 0dprog States and expected total gains0 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 4.0000 390.8800 426.8800 570.8800 726.8800 870.8800States Actions 0 41 2 2 23 0 4 0dprog States and expected total gains0 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 4.0000 517.2800 553.2800 697.2800 853.2800 997.2800States Actions 0 41 2 2 23 0 4 0dprog States and expected total gains1.0e+03 * 0 0.0010 0.0020 0.0030 0.00400.6437 0.6797 0.8237 0.9797 1.1237 States Actions0 4 1 22 2 3 04 0```

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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