# 2.1 Dsp00104-sampled time series  (Page 2/10)

 Page 2 / 10

While introducing decomposition , I told you that almost everything we will discuss in this series on DSP is based on the premise that every timeseries can be decomposed into a large number of sinusoids, each having its own amplitude and frequency.

I also introduced the concept of composition , where any time series can be created by adding together the correct set of sinusoids, each having itsown amplitude and frequency.

## The notion of sampling analog signals

While signal processing can be accomplished in a variety of ways, including analog processors, digital processors, and optical processors, DSP is based onthe notion that signals in nature can be sampled and converted into a series of numbers. The numbers can be fed into some sort of digital device, which canprocess the numbers to achieve some desired objective.

## What is meant by sampling ?

To sample a signal means to measure and record its amplitude at a series of points in time. For example, you might record the temperature in your officeevery ten minutes for twenty-four hours. In this case, the actual temperature in your office would be the analog signal. The 144 temperature values that yourecord would be a sampled time series intended to represent that analog signal.

## Uniform sampling is most common

Although uniform sampling is not strictly necessary, in DSP, the most common practice is to sample the signal at uniform intervals of time, (such as once every ten minutes, once per second, or one-thousand times per second). This results in a uniform sampling frequency (sampling rate) .

(Most of the discussions in this series of tutorials on DSP will assume a uniform sampling frequency.)

## Some problems arise

While sampled data can be used to simulate most of the signal-processing capabilities available with analog devices, the process of sampling doesintroduce some complications that must be dealt with. For the most part, these complications have to do with the relationship between the sampling frequency (in samples per second) and the highest frequency component contained in the signal (in cycles per second).

Stated simply, if the analog signal contains any sinusoidal components whose frequency is greater than half the sampling frequency, then those componentswill appear in the sampled time series at a different frequency. This can result in a variety of problems.

## Reconstruction of the analog signal

Theoretically, if the sampling frequency is twice the highest frequency component contained in the analog signal, then the samples can be used inconjunction with an analog filter to reconstruct the original analog signal.

(However, this requires the construction of a perfect analog filter. In practice, the sampling frequency needs to be perhaps five to ten times thehighest frequency component in the analog signal to make it practical to do a good job of reconstructing the analog signal from the samples.)

## Reconstruction is not always required

Once the signal has been sampled and converted to digital form, there is often no interest in reconstructing the analog signal from the samples. Whilethis eliminates the difficulty of reconstruction, it doesn't eliminate the potential problems caused by having the sampling frequency be less than twicethe highest frequency component in the signal.

#### Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!