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And, finally, the rewards of the symbolic capital are derived from the maintenances of Spanish as the maternal language. It is true that belonging to a speaking community is not the same as feeling like part of a family, a government, or a religion. However, the feeling of belonging to a community of speakers has something of the three things. In this sense, the symbolic role of the language has nothing to do with the functions of communication, persuasion, or thought. This function of integration and reinforcement of self-esteem and identity of the people is probably the first and last reason which so many languages refuse to die. Labov tells the case of a boy in a public school in New York that resisted any attempt of linguistic assimilation within the English standard. Labov attributed this resistance to the deep loyalty that the boy professed to Black English , the language of his gang in the corner of the district. Arnulfo Ramirez (1992) presents the testimony, a bit more dramatic, of a young Texan student:

Cuando nosotros hablamos en chicano, tenemos más feeling que hablar en el standard, porque nosotros asina nos criamos, con esa lengua que inventamos, y asina sufrimos y asina lloramos y asina jugamos, y por eso esa lengua, you know, it’s our feeling (p. 79).

A stirring testimony that reminds us of the linguistic conflict of those second or third generation young Hispanics that form that segment of population between standard English and standard Spanish who have chosen a third rout, that of slang. Perhaps there does not have to be a conflict of linguistic loyalties. Perhaps a variety of a local dialect can coexist with a standardized language. But it is certain that, according to the prospective demographic, The Texan boy by 2020 is going to live in a Hispanic community of 50 million, and that only if he is able in his daily routine to change from Tex-Mex to the standardized Spanish of the U.S. will he be able to play an excellent role in the country where he lives, as well as in the set of the nations that speak Spanish.


Criado, M.J. (2004). Escenarios y tendencias de la lengua española , En Vanguardia Dossier, No.13 Octubre-Diciembre 2004, La Vanguardia Ediciones, Barcelona.

De la Garza, R.O. (2004). Los latinos y la política estadounidense contemporánea , en Vanguardia Dossier, No. 13 Octubre- Diciembre 2004, La Vanguardia Ediciones, Barcelona.

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Portes, A. (2004). La nueva nación latina: Inmigración y población , En Vanguardia Dossier, No. 13, Octubre-Diciembre 2004, La Vanguardia Ediciones, Barcelona.

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Rodriguez, R. (1982). Hunger of memory: The education of Richard Rodríguez . New Cork: Bantam Books.

Rodriguez, R. (1992). The romantic trap of bilingual education. In J. Crawford (Ed.), Language loyalites. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Salazar, R. (1992). Aquí no se habla español. In J. Crawford (Ed.), Language loyalites. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Schumann, J. H. (1976a). Social distance as a factor in second language acquisition. Language Learning , 26(1), 135-143.

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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