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And, finally, the rewards of the symbolic capital are derived from the maintenances of Spanish as the maternal language. It is true that belonging to a speaking community is not the same as feeling like part of a family, a government, or a religion. However, the feeling of belonging to a community of speakers has something of the three things. In this sense, the symbolic role of the language has nothing to do with the functions of communication, persuasion, or thought. This function of integration and reinforcement of self-esteem and identity of the people is probably the first and last reason which so many languages refuse to die. Labov tells the case of a boy in a public school in New York that resisted any attempt of linguistic assimilation within the English standard. Labov attributed this resistance to the deep loyalty that the boy professed to Black English , the language of his gang in the corner of the district. Arnulfo Ramirez (1992) presents the testimony, a bit more dramatic, of a young Texan student:

Cuando nosotros hablamos en chicano, tenemos más feeling que hablar en el standard, porque nosotros asina nos criamos, con esa lengua que inventamos, y asina sufrimos y asina lloramos y asina jugamos, y por eso esa lengua, you know, it’s our feeling (p. 79).

A stirring testimony that reminds us of the linguistic conflict of those second or third generation young Hispanics that form that segment of population between standard English and standard Spanish who have chosen a third rout, that of slang. Perhaps there does not have to be a conflict of linguistic loyalties. Perhaps a variety of a local dialect can coexist with a standardized language. But it is certain that, according to the prospective demographic, The Texan boy by 2020 is going to live in a Hispanic community of 50 million, and that only if he is able in his daily routine to change from Tex-Mex to the standardized Spanish of the U.S. will he be able to play an excellent role in the country where he lives, as well as in the set of the nations that speak Spanish.

References

Criado, M.J. (2004). Escenarios y tendencias de la lengua española , En Vanguardia Dossier, No.13 Octubre-Diciembre 2004, La Vanguardia Ediciones, Barcelona.

De la Garza, R.O. (2004). Los latinos y la política estadounidense contemporánea , en Vanguardia Dossier, No. 13 Octubre- Diciembre 2004, La Vanguardia Ediciones, Barcelona.

Fishman, J.A. (1992). The displaced anxieties of Anglo-Americans . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Menéndez Pidal, R. (1965). Prólogo sobre el habla de la época , En Una ciudad de la España cristiana hace mil años, Claudio Sánchez Albornoz, Ediciones Rialp, Madrid Moreno Fernández, Francisco (2004) El futuro de la lengua española en EE UU , Documentos ARI, Real Instituto Elcano, Madrid.

Orozco, M. (2004). Remesas económicas y migración, En Vanguardia Dossier, No, 13, Octubre- Diciembre 2004, La Vanguardia Ediciones, Barcelona.

Portes, A.Y.,&Hao, L. (2001). Bilingüismo y pérdida de la lengua en la segunda generación de inmigrantes en EE UU , en Revista de Occidente, No. 240, abril 2001, Madrid.

Portes, A. (2004). La nueva nación latina: Inmigración y población , En Vanguardia Dossier, No. 13, Octubre-Diciembre 2004, La Vanguardia Ediciones, Barcelona.

Ramírez, A. (1992). El español de los Estados Unidos: El lenguaje de los hispanos , Madrid: Editorial Mapfre.

Rodriguez, R. (1982). Hunger of memory: The education of Richard Rodríguez . New Cork: Bantam Books.

Rodriguez, R. (1992). The romantic trap of bilingual education. In J. Crawford (Ed.), Language loyalites. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Salazar, R. (1992). Aquí no se habla español. In J. Crawford (Ed.), Language loyalites. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Schumann, J. H. (1976a). Social distance as a factor in second language acquisition. Language Learning , 26(1), 135-143.

Schumann, J. H. (1976b). Second language acquisition: The pidginization hypothesis Language Learning , 26(2), 391-408.

Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics , 10(3), 209-231.

Smith, D. M. (1972). Some implications for the social status of pidgin languages.

In Smith&Shuy (Eds.), Sociolinguistics in cross-culutral analysis (pp. #’s). Washington, DC: University Press.

Stavans, I. (2003). Spanglish: The Making of a New American Language , Harper Collins Publishers, New York.

Weinreich, U. (1974). Lenguas en contacto Ediciones Caracas: Universidad Central de Venezuela.

Whinnom, K. (1990). Linguistic hybridization and the special case of pidgins and

Creoles. In D. Hymes (Ed.), Pidginization and creolization of languages. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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