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And, finally, the rewards of the symbolic capital are derived from the maintenances of Spanish as the maternal language. It is true that belonging to a speaking community is not the same as feeling like part of a family, a government, or a religion. However, the feeling of belonging to a community of speakers has something of the three things. In this sense, the symbolic role of the language has nothing to do with the functions of communication, persuasion, or thought. This function of integration and reinforcement of self-esteem and identity of the people is probably the first and last reason which so many languages refuse to die. Labov tells the case of a boy in a public school in New York that resisted any attempt of linguistic assimilation within the English standard. Labov attributed this resistance to the deep loyalty that the boy professed to Black English , the language of his gang in the corner of the district. Arnulfo Ramirez (1992) presents the testimony, a bit more dramatic, of a young Texan student:

Cuando nosotros hablamos en chicano, tenemos más feeling que hablar en el standard, porque nosotros asina nos criamos, con esa lengua que inventamos, y asina sufrimos y asina lloramos y asina jugamos, y por eso esa lengua, you know, it’s our feeling (p. 79).

A stirring testimony that reminds us of the linguistic conflict of those second or third generation young Hispanics that form that segment of population between standard English and standard Spanish who have chosen a third rout, that of slang. Perhaps there does not have to be a conflict of linguistic loyalties. Perhaps a variety of a local dialect can coexist with a standardized language. But it is certain that, according to the prospective demographic, The Texan boy by 2020 is going to live in a Hispanic community of 50 million, and that only if he is able in his daily routine to change from Tex-Mex to the standardized Spanish of the U.S. will he be able to play an excellent role in the country where he lives, as well as in the set of the nations that speak Spanish.

References

Criado, M.J. (2004). Escenarios y tendencias de la lengua española , En Vanguardia Dossier, No.13 Octubre-Diciembre 2004, La Vanguardia Ediciones, Barcelona.

De la Garza, R.O. (2004). Los latinos y la política estadounidense contemporánea , en Vanguardia Dossier, No. 13 Octubre- Diciembre 2004, La Vanguardia Ediciones, Barcelona.

Fishman, J.A. (1992). The displaced anxieties of Anglo-Americans . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Menéndez Pidal, R. (1965). Prólogo sobre el habla de la época , En Una ciudad de la España cristiana hace mil años, Claudio Sánchez Albornoz, Ediciones Rialp, Madrid Moreno Fernández, Francisco (2004) El futuro de la lengua española en EE UU , Documentos ARI, Real Instituto Elcano, Madrid.

Orozco, M. (2004). Remesas económicas y migración, En Vanguardia Dossier, No, 13, Octubre- Diciembre 2004, La Vanguardia Ediciones, Barcelona.

Portes, A.Y.,&Hao, L. (2001). Bilingüismo y pérdida de la lengua en la segunda generación de inmigrantes en EE UU , en Revista de Occidente, No. 240, abril 2001, Madrid.

Portes, A. (2004). La nueva nación latina: Inmigración y población , En Vanguardia Dossier, No. 13, Octubre-Diciembre 2004, La Vanguardia Ediciones, Barcelona.

Ramírez, A. (1992). El español de los Estados Unidos: El lenguaje de los hispanos , Madrid: Editorial Mapfre.

Rodriguez, R. (1982). Hunger of memory: The education of Richard Rodríguez . New Cork: Bantam Books.

Rodriguez, R. (1992). The romantic trap of bilingual education. In J. Crawford (Ed.), Language loyalites. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Salazar, R. (1992). Aquí no se habla español. In J. Crawford (Ed.), Language loyalites. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Schumann, J. H. (1976a). Social distance as a factor in second language acquisition. Language Learning , 26(1), 135-143.

Schumann, J. H. (1976b). Second language acquisition: The pidginization hypothesis Language Learning , 26(2), 391-408.

Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics , 10(3), 209-231.

Smith, D. M. (1972). Some implications for the social status of pidgin languages.

In Smith&Shuy (Eds.), Sociolinguistics in cross-culutral analysis (pp. #’s). Washington, DC: University Press.

Stavans, I. (2003). Spanglish: The Making of a New American Language , Harper Collins Publishers, New York.

Weinreich, U. (1974). Lenguas en contacto Ediciones Caracas: Universidad Central de Venezuela.

Whinnom, K. (1990). Linguistic hybridization and the special case of pidgins and

Creoles. In D. Hymes (Ed.), Pidginization and creolization of languages. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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