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But these transnational communities are not only an economic reality but also a political reality. The political parties of Mexico, Dominican Republic, and Colombia have offices in Los Angeles, Miami, and New York from which they present their electoral candidates, gather funds for the campaigns, and obtain votes that can be decisive in the electoral fights. At the same time, this intense bidirectional traffic of information, goods, and people deeply influence the origin nations. The birth among the organized diasporas of associations with the place of origin, known as HTA ( Hometown Associations ), has a more than considerable volume in the diverse enclaves of Hispanics in the U.S. Its purpose is other than to conserve the cultural bonds and to improve situations in the communities of the origin countries. This way, it is confirmed once again that the Latin migratory experience has differentiating characteristics from that of European immigrant groups. This continuous bond with the origin country will contribute, without a doubt, reinforcing linguistic loyalty with the Spanish language and, therefore, to its maintenance.

The massive presence of Hispanics in the urban world has shot a proliferation of communication medias that use Spanish to communicate with their audience. Only the National Association of Hispanic Publications includes 180 publications that spread 10 million newspaper units and magazines, most of them written in Spanish. If we were to add the 600 radio transmitters, plus 100 TV transmitters with regular programs in Spanish, we can have an idea of the formidable presence of the Hispanic in the media. And it is that 40 million Hispanics, with an annual spending power of nearly 700 billion dollars, constitute a very tempting market for the commercial publicity, which has turned to commercial bilingualism as a marketing strategy. According to Arnulfo Ramirez (1992), many medias in English turn to expressions in Spanish to sell more among Hispanics. On the other hand, the Spanish media turn to English to attract those second or third generation Hispanics whose Spanish begins to weaken, which confirms the advertising slogan, “It's a whole nuevo mundo out there.” The dollar has discovered the Hispanic market, and money, as already known, speaks all languages. And it is that, according to some market investigations, the commercial publicity in Spanish has turned out to be more effective among the Hispanic population than that in English. The advertisements in Spanish are more persuasive; that is to say, they more effectively urge a purchase and remain a longer time in the receiver’s memory than advertisements in English. This practice of commercial bilingualism and the publicity’s preference of the Spanish language demonstrate that that new world out there is a world where Spanish refuses to disappear, and the number of bilinguals continues to increase.

On the other hand, there are the cognitive advantages of bilingualism. The times in which psycholinguistic maintained a negative association among bilingualism and cognitive development, to the point of attributing bilingualism the responsibility of the mental setback of immigrant’s children, were left behind. Luckily, recent studies have demonstrated the opposite; that is to say, a positive association among bilingualism, academic results, and cognitive flexibility. This last advantage goes along with this, since bilingual persons by definition counts with more than one way of naming the same thing, which frees them of the tyranny of words, and allows them to look at the language and not through the language as is expressed by monolingual persons.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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