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<<"\tsizeof(char) = "<<sizeof( char )

<<"\nsizeof s = "<<sizeof(s)

<<"\tsizeof(short) = "<<sizeof( short )

<<"\nsizeof i = "<<sizeof (i)

<<"\tsizeof(int) = "<<sizeof( int )

<<"\nsizeof l = "<<sizeof(l)

<<"\tsizeof(long) = "<<sizeof( long )

<<"\nsizeof f = "<<sizeof (f)

<<"\tsizeof(float) = "<<sizeof(float)

<<"\nsizeof d = "<<sizeof (d)

<<"\tsizeof(double) = "<<sizeof(double)

<<endl;

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

sizeof c = 1sizeof(char) = 1

sizeof s = 2sizeof(short) = 2

sizeof i = 4sizeof(int) = 4

sizeof l = 4sizeof(long) = 4

sizeof f = 4sizeof(float) = 4

sizeof d = 8sizeof(double) = 8

Focus on problem solving

In this section, the software development procedure presented in the previous chapter is applied to a specific programming problem. This procedure can be applied to any programming problem to produce a completed program and forms the foundation for all programs developed in this text.

Problem: Telephone Switching Networks

A directly connected telephone network is one in which all telephones in the network are connected directly and do not require a central switching station to establish calls between two telephones.

The number of direct lines needed to maintain a directly connected network for n telephones is given by the formula:

lines = n(n-1)/2

For example, directly connecting four telephones requires six individual lines.

Using the formula, write a C++ program that determines the number of direct lines for 100 telephones and the additional lines required if 10 new telephones were added to the network. Use our top-down software development procedure.

Step 1: analyze the problem

For this program, two outputs are required: the number of direct lines required for 100 telephones and the additional lines needed when 10 new telephones are added to the existing network. The input item required for this problem is the number of telephones, which is denoted as n in the formula.

Step 2: develop a solution

The first output is easily obtained using the given formula lines = n(n-1)/2. Although there is no formula given for additional lines, we can use the given formula to determine the total number of lines needed for 110 subscribers. Subtracting the number of lines for 100 subscribers from the number of lines needed for 110 subscribers then yields the number of additional lines required. Thus, the complete algorithm for our program, in pseudocode, is:

Calculate the number of direct lines for 100 subscribers.

Calculate the number of direct lines for 110 subscribers.

Calculate the additional lined needed, which is the

difference between the second and the first calculation.

Display the number of lines for 100 subscribers.

Display the additional lines needed.

Step 3: code the solution

The following program provides the necessary code.

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

int numin1, numin2, lines1, lines2;

numin1 = 100;

numin2 = 110;

lines1 = numin1*(numin1 – 1)/2;

lines2 = numin2*(numin2 – 1)/2;

cout<<“The number of initial lines is “<<lines1<<“.\n”;

cout<<“There are “<<lines2 – lines1

<<“ additional lines needed.\n”;

return 0;

}

Step 4: test and correct the program

The following output is produced when the program is compiled and executed:

The number of initial lines is 4950.

There are 1045 additional lines needed.

Because the displayed value agrees with the hand calculation, we have established a degree of confidence in the program.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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