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Variable names are also selected according to the rules of identifiers:

  • Identifiers must begin with an uppercase or lowercase ASCII letter or an underscore (_).
  • You can use digits in an identifier, but not as the first character. You are not allowed to use special characters such as $,&, * or %.
  • Reserved words cannot be used for variable names.

Example: Some valid identifiers

my_variable

Temperature

x1

x2

_my_variable

Some invalid identifiers are as follows:

%x1%my_var@x2

We should always give variables meaningful names, from which a reader might be able to make a reasonable guess at their purpose. We may use comments if further clarification is necessary.

Declaration statements

Naming a variable and specifying the data type that can be stored in it is accomplished using declaration statement . A declaration statement in C++ programs has the following syntax:

type name;

The type portion refers to the data type of the variable.

The data type determines the type of information that can be stored in the variable.

Example:

int sum;

long datenem;

double secnum;

Note:

  1. A variable must be declared before it can be used.
  2. Declaration statements can also be used to store an initial value into declared variables.

Example:

int num = 15;

float grade1 = 87.0;

Variable declarations are just the instructions that tell the compiler to allocate memory locations for the variables to be used in a program.

A variable declaration creates a memory location but it is undefined to start with, that means it's empty.

Example

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

float price1 = 85.5;

float price2 = 97.0;

float total, average;

total = price1 + price2;

average = total/2.0; // divide the total by 2.0

cout<<"The average price is "<<average<<endl;

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

The average price is 91.25

Let notice the two statements in the above program:

total = price1 + price2;

average = total/2.0;

Each of these statements is called an assignment statement because it tells the computer to assign (store) a value into a variable. Assignment statements always have an equal (=) sign and one variable name on the left of this sign. The value on the right of the equal sign is assigned to the variable on the left of the equal sign.

Display a variable’s address

Every variable has three major items associated with it: its data type, its actual value stored in the variable and the address of the variable. The value stored in the variable is referred to as the variable’s contents, while the address of the first memory location used for the variable constitutes its address.

To see the address of a variable, we can use address operator ,&, which means “the address of “. For example,&num means the address of num.

Example

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

int a;

a = 22;

cout<<"The value stored in a is "<<a<<endl;

cout<<"The address of a = "<<&a<<endl;

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

The value stored in a is 22

The address of a = 0x0065FDF4

The display of addresses is in hexadecimal notation.

Integer quantifiers

Portable languages like C++ must have flexible data type sizes. Different applications might need integers of different sizes. C++ provides long integer , short integer , and unsigned integer data types. These three additional integer data types are obtained by adding the quantifier long , short or unsigned to the normal integer declaration statements.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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