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The bool Data Type

The C++ bool type can have two states expressed by the built-in constants true (which converts to an integral one) and false (which converts to an integral zero). All three names are keywords. This data type is most useful when a program must examine a specific condition and, as a result of the condition being either true or false, take a prescribed course of action.

Arithmetic operators

Most programs perform arithmetic calculations. Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical calculations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division in C++.

Arithmetic operators

A simple arithmetic expression consists of an arithmetic operator connecting two operands in the form:

operand operator operand

Examples:

3 + 7

18 – 3

12.62 + 9.8

12.6/2.0

Example

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

cout<<"15.0 plus 2.0 equals "<<(15.0 + 2.0)<<'\n'

<<"15.0 minus 2.0 equals "<<(15.0 - 2.0)<<'\n'

<<"15.0 times 2.0 equals "<<(15.0 * 2.0)<<'\n'

<<"15.0 divided by 2.0 equals "<<(15.0 / 2.0)<<'\n';

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

15.0 plus 2.0 equals 17

15.0 minus 2.0 equals 13

15.0 times 2.0 equals 30

15.0 divided by 2.0 equals 7.5

Integer division

The division of two integers yields integer result. Thus the value of 15/2 is 7.

Modulus % operator produces the remainder of an integer division.

Example:

9%4 is 1

17%3 is 2

14%2 is 0

Operator precedence and associativity

Expressions containing multiple operators are evaluated by the priority, or precedence, of the operators.

Operator precedence defines the order in which an expression evaluates when several different operators are present. C++ have specific rules to determine the order of evaluation. The easiest to remember is that multiplication and division happen before addition and subtraction.

The following table lists both precedence and associativity of the operators.

Precedence and associativity of the operators

Example: Let us use the precedence rules to evaluate an expression containing operators of different precedence, such as 8 + 5*7%2*4. Because the multiplication and modulus operators have a higher precedence than the addition operator, these two operations are evaluated first (P2), using their left-to-right associativity, before the addition is evaluated (P3). Thus, the complete expression is evaluated as:

Expression evaluation

Expression types

An expression is any combination of operators and operands that can be evaluated to yield a value. An expression that contains only integer values as operands is called an integer expression, and the result of the expression is an integer value. Similarly, an expression containing only floating-point values (single and double precision) as operands is called a floating-point expression, and the result of the expression is a floating point value (the term real expression is also used).

Variables and declaration statements

One of the most important aspects of programming is storing and manipulating the values stored in variables . A variable is simply a name chosen by the programmer that is used to refer to computer storage locations. The term variable is used because the value stored in the variable can change, or vary.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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