<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The header file for the iostream class is iostream.h.

The #include statement is one of the several preprocessor directives that are used with C++.

The preprocessor is a program that runs before the compiler. When it encounters an #include statement, the preprocessor places the entire contents of the designated file into the current file.

Preprocessor directives and include statements allow the current file to use any of the classes, functions, variables, and other code contained within the included file.

Example: To include the iostream.h file you use the following statement:

#include<iostream.h>

An i/o manipulator is a special function that can be used with an i/o statement. The endl i/o manipulator is part of the iostream classes and represents a new line character.

Example:

cout<<“Program type: console application”<<endl;

cout<<“Create with: Visual C++ “<<endl;

cout<<“Programmer: Don Gesselin”<<endl;

All statements in C++ must end with a semicolon. Large statements can span multiple lines of code.

Example:

cout<<“Program type: console application,”

<<“Create with: Visual C++ “

<<“Programmer: Don Gesselin”;

Comments

Comments are lines that you place in your code to contain various type of remarks. C++ support two types of comments: line and block.

C++ line comments are created by adding two slashes (//) before the text you want to use as a comment.

Block comments span multiple lines. Such comments begin with /* and end with the symbols */.

Example:

void main()

{

/*

This line is part of the block comment.

This line is also part of the block

comment.

*/

cout<<“Line comment 1 “;

cout<<“Line comment 2 “;

// This line comment takes up an entire line.

}

All programs should contain comments. They are

remarks, insights, wisdom in code without affecting the program. The compiler ignores comments

.

Data types and operators

Data types

A data type is the specific category of information that a variable contains.

There are three basic data types used in C++: integers, floating point numbers and characters.

Integers

An integer is a positive or negative number with no decimal places.

- 259 -13 0 200

Floating Point Numbers

A floating point number contains decimal places or is written using exponential notations.

-6.16 -4.4 2.7541 10.5

Exponential notation, or scientific notation is a way of writing a very large numbers or numbers with many decimal places using a shortened format.

2.0e11 means 2*1011

C++ supports three different kinds of floating-point numbers:

  • float (i.e. single precision numbers),
  • double (i.e. double precision numbers)
  • long double.

A double precision floating-point number can contain up to 15 significant digits.

The Character Data Type

To store text, you use the character data type. To store one character in a variable, you use the char keyword and place the character in single quotation marks.

Example:

char cLetter = ‘A’;

Escape sequence

The combination of a backlash (\) and a special character is called an escape sequence. When this character is placed directly in front of a select group of character, it tells the compiler to escape from the way these characters would normally be interpreted.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
what is hormones?
Wellington
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Programming fundamentals in c++' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask