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ABall.updateState() is abstract because at the abstraction level of ABall , one only knows that the ball will definitely do something with regards to modifying (perhaps) its internal field values(its "state"). Each subclass will do it differently however. The StraightBall will do nothing in its updateState method because a ball with a constant (unchanging) velocity will travel in a straight line. Remember, doing nothing is doing something ! The CurveBall 's updateState method uses sines and cosines to turn the velocity by a fixed (though randomly chosen) angle at every update event. You can imagine that other possible subclassses could do things such as randomly change the velocity or change the radius of the ball or change the color of the ball.

There is no code in the entire Ballworld system that explicitly references any of the concrete ABall subclasses. All of the code runs at the level of abstraction of an abstract ball. The differences in behavior of the various balls made on the screen using the different concrete subclasses is strictly due to polymorphism . New types of balls can be added to the system without recompiling any of the existing code. In fact, new types of balls can be added without even stopping the Ballworld program!

Abstract classes vs. interfaces

Subclasses have a different relationship between interfaces and abstract superclasses. A subclass that implements an interface is saying simply that it "acts like" that specified by the interface. The class makes no statements however about fundamentally what it actually is. An actor implements a fiercesome alien from a distant plantet in one movie and a fickle feline in another. But an actor is actually neither. Just because the actor protrayed a interplanetary alien, doesn't mean that the actor fundamentally possessed all the abilities of such an alien. All it says is that in so far the context in which the actor was utilized as the alien, the actor did implement all the necessary behaviors of the alien.

A subclass is fundamentally an example of its superclass. A subclass automatically contains all the behaviors of its superclass because it fundamentally is the superclass. The subclass doesn't have to implement the behaviors of its superclass, it already has them. An actor is a human and by that right, automatically possesses all that which makes a human: one head, two arms, 10 toes, etc. Note that this is true even if the abstract class has 100% abstract methods--it still enforces a strict taxonomical hierarchy.

implements is about behaving , extends is about being .

Variant vs. invariant behaviors

A crucial observation is that the the Ballworld code that manages the GUI ( BallGUI ) and the ball management ( BallControl , Dispatcher , etc.) only deal with the abstract ball, ABall . That is, they represent invariant behavior at the abstract ball level. The display, creation and managment of the balls is independent of the particular kinds of concrete balls that is being handled. The main Ballworld framework can thus handle any type of ABall , past, present and future.

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
felecia
_½+⅔-¾
felecia
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
Pawel
ok
Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
felecia
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
hello, I am happy to help!
Shirley Reply
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
Abdullahi
hi mam
Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
yes i wantt to review
Mark
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
please help me prove quadratic formula
Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
thank you help me with how to prove the quadratic equation
Seidu
may God blessed u for that. Please I want u to help me in sets.
Opoku
what is math number
Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of object-oriented programming. OpenStax CNX. May 10, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10213/1.37
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