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Summary

Despite generally good health in the U.S. compared with less-developed countries, America is still facing challenging issues such as a prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Moreover, Americans of historically disadvantaged racial groups, ethnicities, socioeconomic status, and gender experience lower levels of health care. Mental health and disability are health issues that are significantly impacted by social norms.

Short answer

What factors contribute to the disparities in health among racial, ethnic, and gender groups in the United States?

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Do you know anyone with a mental disorder? How does it affect his or her life?

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Further research

Is ADHD a valid diagnosis and disease? Some think it is not. This article discusses this history of the issue: (External Link)

References

Agency for Health Research and Quality. 2010. “Disparities in Healthcare Quality Among Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups.” Agency for Health Research and Quality. Retrieved December 13, 2011 ( (External Link) )

American Psychological Association. 2011a. “A 09 Autism Spectrum Disorder.” American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Retrieved December 14, 2011.

American Psychological Association. 2011b. “Personality Traits.” American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Retrieved December 14, 2011.

American Psychological Association. N.d. “Understanding the Ritalin Debate.” American Psychological Association. Retrieved December 14, 2011 ( (External Link) )

Becker, Dana. N.d. “Borderline Personality Disorder: The Disparagement of Women through Diagnosis.” Retrieved December 13, 2011 ( (External Link)&view=article&id=109&catid=74&Itemid=126 ).

Berkman, Lisa F. 2009. “Social Epidemiology: Social Determinants of Health in the United States: Are We Losing Ground?” Annual Review of Public Health 30:27–40.

Fox, B. and D. Worts. 1999. “Revisiting the Critique of Medicalized Childbirth: A Contribution to the Sociology of Birth.” Gender and Society 13(3):326–346.

Gellene, Denise. 2009. “Sleeping Pill Use Grows as Economy Keeps People up at Night.” Retrieved December 16, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Hines, Susan M. and Kevin J. Thompson. 2007. “Fat Stigmatization in Television Shows and Movies: A Content Analysis.” Obesity 15:712–718. Retrieved December 15, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem . Washington DC: National Academies Press.

Jacobs, Gregg D., Edward F. Pace-Schott, Robert Stickgold, and Michael W. Otto. 2004. “Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Pharmacotherapy for Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Direct Comparison.” Archives of Internal Medicine 164(17):1888–1896. Retrieved December 16, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

James, Cara et al. 2007. “Key Facts: Race, Ethnicity&Medical Care.” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 13, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Moloney, Mairead Eastin, Thomas R. Konrad, and Catherine R. Zimmer. 2011. “The Medicalization of Sleeplessness: A Public Health Concern.” American Journal of Public Health 101:1429–1433.

National Institute of Mental Health. 2005. “National Institute of Mental Health Statistics.” Retrieved December 14, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

National Institutes of Health. 2011a. “Insomnia.” The National Institute of Health. Retrieved December 16, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

National Institutes of Health. 2011b. “What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?” National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved December 14, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Phelan, Jo C. and Bruce G. Link. 2001. “Conceptualizing Stigma” Annual Review of Sociology 27:363–85 . Retrieved December 13, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Phelan, Jo C. and Bruce G. Link. 2003. “When Income Affects Outcome: Socioeconomic Status and Health.” Research in Profile :6. Retrieved December 13, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Puhl, Rebecca M. and Chelsea A. Heuer. 2009. “The Stigma of Obesity: A Review and Update.” Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved December 15, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Ranji, Usha and Alina Salganico. 2011. “Women's Health Care Chartbook: Key Findings from the Kaiser Women's Health Survey.” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 13, 2011 ( (External Link) =).

Scheff, Thomas. 1963. Being Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory . Chicago, IL: Aldine.

Szasz, Thomas. 1961. The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct . New York, NY: Harper Collins.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. “Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012.” 131st ed. Washington, DC. Retrieved December 13, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

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Winkleby, Marilyn A., D. E. Jatulis, E. Frank, and S. P. Fortmann. 1992. “Socioeconomic Status and Health: How Education, Income, and Occupation Contribute to Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease.” American Journal of Public Health 82:6.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
What is society and how society understand
Ashmi Reply
Deceit social imitation bye C.Writ
Ashmi
What is called research problem and how we narrow down a research question and why it is needed
Karamat Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology. OpenStax CNX. Jun 12, 2012 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11407/1.7
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