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Among Christian women in the West, there has developed a movement called Women–Church in which many of these women feel more comfortable than in the traditional churches. Some women have also left the faith and have created their own Goddess-oriented religion.


It is clear that the position of women were changed for the better when Muhammad came to power. This, however, says more about the deplorable conditions under which women lived in the Arabian peninsula than about the rights women gained under Islam. Nevertheless, the Qur'an does make provision for women's rights which they did not have previously, such as the right to own property.

The Qur'an implies a complimentary relationship between male and female (with female being created as a mate to the male), but also states "Men have authority over women because Allah has made the one superior to the other, and because they spend their wealth to maintain them. Good women are obedient" (Sura 34–35). It also states that rebellious women are to be confined to their beds and beaten, but should then be treated well again if they mend their ways.

Many practices in Muslim societies seem to be culturally, rather than religiously, based. One such practice is the veil which many women wear. While the Qur'an dictates that both men and women should dress modestly it says nothing about veiling. In different cultures, different styles of veiling developed over time and today women in some regions cover only their heads, while in others they cover their entire bodies with tent–like robes.

In Islam there has been very little in the way of feminist critique of patriarchy and this can mean that women in Islam are generally satisfied with their position, but it can also mean that the oppression is so complete that critique is not possible.


Hinduism has traditionally been severely patriarchal and throughout a woman's life, she always had a male relative who was in charge of her – first her father, then her husband and lastly her son. She was taught that her way to salvation lay through her husband and that he should be regarded as her god – even if he was unfaithful and abusive.

According to tradition only a son can light a parent's funeral pyre and the Laws of Manu (a collection of ethical and religious guidelines) teaches that only a son can save an ancestor from hell so that they can continue their spiritual journey. This virtually forces parents to have at least one son and over the years this has lead to female infanticide in Hindu communities. Today, in India, one can have medical tests to determine the sex of a fetus and even now some parents will have abortions if the fetus is female.

The practise of sati has been outlawed in India and has all but ceased, but still summarises the plight of women in Hinduism thorough the ages. Sati (the literal meaning of the word is "good woman") refers to the practise whereby a woman would be cremated (alive!) along with her husband when he died. This practise was said to be voluntary because when a husband died the life of the wife would be all but over in any case. A widowed women would be shunned socially by family and friends so that she would have to live a very lonely life indeed.


Buddhism is said to be the religion that is the most tolerant of women, and men and women are usually regarded as spiritually equal. Nevertheless the Buddha was reluctant to allow women to enter the monastic life, and when he eventually relented, he remarked that the life of the sangha (the community) would be shortened because of this move. This should however not lull one into thinking that Buddhism is not also traditionally male orientated. The monastic orders for men have always been very strong while those for women have usually had an uphill struggle. Monks have also always been regarded as superior to nuns. In any situation the most junior monk is still regarded as superior to the most senior nun.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Learning about religion. OpenStax CNX. Apr 18, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11780/1.1
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