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The near east

Back to The Near East: A.D. 201 to 300


The Abyssinians had conquered the southern angle of the peninsula by 362 and there were still some fairly prosperous towns along the Red Sea. In the north there was an increasing level of civilization with more and more contact with Syria, while in the desert the nomad tribes gradually encroached on the towns. (Ref. 8 )

Mediterranean coastal areas of israel and lebanon&Iraq and syria

The eastern portion of Syria, comprising essentially present day Iraq and ancient Mesopotamia was under the domination and actually a part of the new Persian Empire. The western part of Syria, including the areas of Lebanon and Judea, were part of Byzantium, the eastern realm of the fading Roman Empire. Monophysite Christianity, which began a period of extreme ascetism among many monks of the East, became widely accepted in Syria and particularly in the Lebanon region. Judging from the irrigation systems, the population of Mesopotamia may well have reached its peak at this time, while epidemics and other problems were cutting the Italian Roman population (Ref. 140 ) The Bible and various theological works were translated into Syriac and then a copious original literature was developed. In central Syria, since the cities of Palmyra and Hatra had been destroyed in the previous century, the silk route now went farther north from Antioch on the coast through northern Syria to Seleucia, an ancient city now gone, which was located near present day Baghdad. (Ref. 127 , 137 )


In the first decade of this century Persia was invaded by Arabs from Mesopotamia and Bahrain and Ctesiphon was sacked. At 17 years of age Shapur Il became emperor and he immediately invaded Arabia and exacted a terrible revenge upon the Arabs. Then between 337 and 376 he engaged in three wars with Rome, with neither side gaining any great advantage. When Shapur II died in 379 the Persian Empire was at its peak, controlling all territory that Darius I had ruled a thousand years before. Zorastrianism, tied up with the political destiny of the empire, was winning against both Judaism and Hellenization.

Iranian society in this Sassanian period consisted essentially of three classes:

(1) WARRIORS. The land owners, great and small, furnished the heavy cavalry and the mounted archers who were the effective strength of the army. The infantry consisted of their vassals and serfs. At the top of this class were seven great families dating back to the Achaemenid times and holding hereditary rights to various offices. The king was a member of one of these great families and the internal history of Iran continued to be one of nobles jockeying for power.

(2) PRIESTS: MAGI. The Avesta, written sometime during Sassanian domination, ordered every aspect of life in Persia. The Magi had great authority, including some judicial function. They owned large estates and had considerable political influence when Mazdaism finally became the dominant religion in the next century.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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