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The conflict over which policy tool to use can be frustrating to those who want to categorize economics as “liberal” or “conservative,” or who want to use economic models to argue against their political opponents. But the AD–AS model can be used both by advocates of smaller government, who seek to reduce taxes and government spending, and by advocates of bigger government, who seek to raise taxes and government spending. Economic studies of specific taxing and spending programs can help to inform decisions about whether taxes or spending should be changed, and in what ways. Ultimately, decisions about whether to use tax or spending mechanisms to implement macroeconomic policy is, in part, a political decision rather than a purely economic one.

Contractionary fiscal policy

Fiscal policy can also contribute to pushing aggregate demand beyond potential GDP in a way that leads to inflation. As shown in [link] , a very large budget deficit pushes up aggregate demand, so that the intersection of aggregate demand (AD 0 ) and aggregate supply (SRAS 0 ) occurs at equilibrium E 0 , which is an output level above potential GDP. This is sometimes known as an “overheating economy” where demand is so high that there is upward pressure on wages and prices, causing inflation. In this situation, contractionary fiscal policy involving federal spending cuts or tax increases can help to reduce the upward pressure on the price level by shifting aggregate demand to the left, to AD 1 , and causing the new equilibrium E 1 to be at potential GDP, where aggregate demand intersects the LRAS curve.

A contractionary fiscal policy

The graph shows two aggregate demand curves that each intersect with an aggregate supply curve. Aggregate demand curve (AD sub 1) intersects with both the aggregate supply curve (AS sub 0) as well as the potential GDP line.
The economy starts at the equilibrium quantity of output Y 0 , which is above potential GDP. The extremely high level of aggregate demand will generate inflationary increases in the price level. A contractionary fiscal policy can shift aggregate demand down from AD 0 to AD 1 , leading to a new equilibrium output E 1 , which occurs at potential GDP, where AD1 intersects the LRAS curve.

Again, the AD–AS model does not dictate how this contractionary fiscal policy is to be carried out. Some may prefer spending cuts; others may prefer tax increases; still others may say that it depends on the specific situation. The model only argues that, in this situation, aggregate demand needs to be reduced.

Key concepts and summary

Expansionary fiscal policy increases the level of aggregate demand, either through increases in government spending or through reductions in taxes. Expansionary fiscal policy is most appropriate when an economy is in recession and producing below its potential GDP. Contractionary fiscal policy decreases the level of aggregate demand, either through cuts in government spending or increases in taxes. Contractionary fiscal policy is most appropriate when an economy is producing above its potential GDP.

Problems

Specify whether expansionary or contractionary fiscal policy would seem to be most appropriate in response to each of the situations below and sketch a diagram using aggregate demand and aggregate supply curves to illustrate your answer:

  1. A recession.
  2. A stock market collapse that hurts consumer and business confidence.
  3. Extremely rapid growth of exports.
  4. Rising inflation.
  5. A rise in the natural rate of unemployment.
  6. A rise in oil prices.
Got questions? Get instant answers now!

References

Alesina, Alberto, and Francesco Giavazzi. Fiscal Policy after the Financial Crisis (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report) . Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2013.

Martin, Fernando M. “Fiscal Policy in the Great Recession and Lessons from the Past.” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis: Economic Synopses . no. 1 (2012). http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/es/12/ES_2012-01-06.pdf.

Bivens, Josh, Andrew Fieldhouse, and Heidi Shierholz. “From Free-fall to Stagnation: Five Years After the Start of the Great Recession, Extraordinary Policy Measures Are Still Needed, But Are Not Forthcoming.” Economic Policy Institute . Last modified February 14, 2013. http://www.epi.org/publication/bp355-five-years-after-start-of-great-recession/.

Lucking, Brian, and Dan Wilson. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, “FRBSF Economic Letter—U.S. Fiscal Policy: Headwind or Tailwind?” Last modified July 2, 2012. http://www.frbsf.org/economic-research/publications/economic-letter/2012/july/us-fiscal-policy/.

Greenstone, Michael, and Adam Looney. Brookings. “The Role of Fiscal Stimulus in the Ongoing Recovery.” Last modified July 6, 2012. http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/jobs/posts/2012/07/06-jobs-greenstone-looney.

Questions & Answers

List and explain four factors of production
Vuyo Reply
capital labour entrepreneur natural resources
Thembi
What is supply
Ogodo Reply
when the supply decreases demand also decreases
Thembi
types of demand and the explanation
akin Reply
what is demand
akin Reply
other things remaining same if demend is increases supply is also decrease and if demend is decrease supply is also increases is called the demand
Mian
if the demand increase supply also increases
Thembi
you are wrong this is the law of demand and not the definition
Tarasum
Demand is the willingness of buy and ability to buy in a specific time period in specific place. Mian you are saying law of demand but not in proper way. you have to keep studying more. because its very basic things in Economics.
Hamza
Demand is the price of Quantity goods and services in which consumer's are willing and able to offer at a price in the market over a period of time
Umar
Demand is the quantity of goods and services that the consumer are willing and able to buy at a alternative prices over a given period of time. But mind you demand is quite different from need and want.
Tarasum
Demand can be defined as the graphical representation between price&demand
alkasim
sorry demand is nt a graphical representation between price and quantity demand but instead that is demand curve.
Ebrima
Demand is the willingness and ability of a consumer to buy a quantity of a good over a given period of time assuming all other things remain constant.
Vedaant
what is commercialization?
Doris Reply
How to talk loan for bank?
Alfred Reply
what is the meaning of gpa?
Ritisha Reply
Answer: GPA stands for Grade Point Average. It is a standard way of measuring academic achievement in the U.S. Basically, it goes as follows: Each course is given a certain number of "units" or "credits", depending on the content of the course.
Yusuf
what is small and Microbuisenes
tadesse Reply
What is fiscal policy
Dansofo
Who is the funder of Economic
Dansofo
founder , that is Adam Smith
Daniel
what is model
Daniel Reply
The wealth of Nations
Yusuf Reply
the wealth of nations, is it the first?
Umar
Yes very sure it was released in 1759
Yusuf
thank you Yusuf.
Umar
then when did he died?
Umar
17 July 1790 Born: 16 June 1723, Kirkcaldy, United Kingdom Place of death: Panmure House, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Yusuf
1790
Yusuf
that's my today questions, thank you Yusuf it's bed time see u after.
Umar
what is fiscal policy
kemigisha Reply
what's mode?
Umar Reply
mode is the highest occurring frequency in a distribution
Bola
mode is the most commonly occurring item in a set of data.
Umar
Please, what is the difference between monopoly and monopsony?
Olaleye Reply
is there monopsony word?
Umar
I have no idea though
Umar
please, in which year Adam smith was born?
Umar
monopsony is when there's only one buyer while monopoly is when there's only one producer.
Bola
who have idea on Banter
Ibrahim
like trade by barter?
Bola
Monopoly is when there's excessively one seller and there is no entry in the market while monopsony is when there is one buyer
kemigisha
Adam smith was born in 1723
Bola
 (uncountable) Good humoured, playful, typically spontaneous conversation. verb (intransitive) To engage in banter or playful conversation. (intransitive) To play or do something amusing. (transitive) To tease mildly.
Umar
which book Adam smith published first? the first book of Adam smith pls.
Umar
wealth on nation, 1776
Daniel
what is market power and how can it affect an economy?
Gab Reply
market power:- where a firm is said to be a price setter.market power benefits the powerful at the expense of others.
Umar
Market power refers to the ability of a firm (or group of firms) to raise and maintain price above the level that would prevail under competition is referred to as market or monopoly power. The exercise of market power leads to reduced output and loss of economic welfare
Kartheek
find information about the national budget
Molahlegi
three branches of economics in which tourism is likely to figure
Makgotso Reply
What are those three branches?
IlRegno
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
Equilibrium price is a stable price and it must stay.discuss
Elvis Reply
Card 14 / 21: What are the similarities between a consumer’s budget constraint and society’s production possibilities frontier, not just graphically but analytically?
Ali Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of macroeconomics for ap® courses. OpenStax CNX. Aug 24, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11864/1.2
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