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The two most orderly possibilities are 5 heads or 5 tails. (They are more structured than the others.) They are also the least likely, only 2 out of 32 possibilities. The most disorderly possibilities are 3 heads and 2 tails and its reverse. (They are the least structured.) The most disorderly possibilities are also the most likely, with 20 out of 32 possibilities for the 3 heads and 2 tails and its reverse. If we start with an orderly array like 5 heads and toss the coins, it is very likely that we will get a less orderly array as a result, since 30 out of the 32 possibilities are less orderly. So even if you start with an orderly state, there is a strong tendency to go from order to disorder, from low entropy to high entropy. The reverse can happen, but it is unlikely.

100-coin toss
Macrostate Number of microstates
Heads Tails ( W )
100 0 1
99 1 1 . 0 × 10 2 size 12{1 "." 0´"10" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
95 5 7 . 5 × 10 7 size 12{7 "." 5´"10" rSup { size 8{7} } } {}
90 10 1 . 7 × 10 13 size 12{1 "." 7´"10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } } {}
75 25 2 . 4 × 10 23 size 12{2 "." 4´"10" rSup { size 8{"23"} } } {}
60 40 1 . 4 × 10 28 size 12{1 "." 4´"10" rSup { size 8{"28"} } } {}
55 45 6 . 1 × 10 28 size 12{6 "." 1´"10" rSup { size 8{"28"} } } {}
51 49 9 . 9 × 10 28 size 12{9 "." 9´"10" rSup { size 8{"28"} } } {}
50 50 1 . 0 × 10 29 size 12{1 "." 0´"10" rSup { size 8{"29"} } } {}
49 51 9 . 9 × 10 28 size 12{9 "." 9´"10" rSup { size 8{"28"} } } {}
45 55 6 . 1 × 10 28 size 12{6 "." 1´"10" rSup { size 8{"28"} } } {}
40 60 1 . 4 × 10 28 size 12{1 "." 4´"10" rSup { size 8{"28"} } } {}
25 75 2 . 4 × 10 23 size 12{2 "." 4´"10" rSup { size 8{"23"} } } {}
10 90 1 . 7 × 10 13 size 12{1 "." 7´"10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } } {}
5 95 7 . 5 × 10 7 size 12{7 "." 5´"10" rSup { size 8{7} } } {}
1 99 1 . 0 × 10 2 size 12{1 "." 0´"10" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
0 100 1
Total: 1 . 27 × 10 30 size 12{1 "." "27"´"10" rSup { size 8{"30"} } } {}

This result becomes dramatic for larger systems. Consider what happens if you have 100 coins instead of just 5. The most orderly arrangements (most structured) are 100 heads or 100 tails. The least orderly (least structured) is that of 50 heads and 50 tails. There is only 1 way (1 microstate) to get the most orderly arrangement of 100 heads. There are 100 ways (100 microstates) to get the next most orderly arrangement of 99 heads and 1 tail (also 100 to get its reverse). And there are 1.0 × 10 29 size 12{1 "." 0 times "10" rSup { size 8{"29"} } } {} ways to get 50 heads and 50 tails, the least orderly arrangement. [link] is an abbreviated list of the various macrostates and the number of microstates for each macrostate. The total number of microstates—the total number of different ways 100 coins can be tossed—is an impressively large 1 . 27 × 10 30 size 12{1 "." "27" times "10" rSup { size 8{"30"} } } {} . Now, if we start with an orderly macrostate like 100 heads and toss the coins, there is a virtual certainty that we will get a less orderly macrostate. If we keep tossing the coins, it is possible, but exceedingly unlikely, that we will ever get back to the most orderly macrostate. If you tossed the coins once each second, you could expect to get either 100 heads or 100 tails once in 2 × 10 22 size 12{2 times "10" rSup { size 8{"22"} } } {} years! This period is 1 trillion ( 10 12 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } } {} ) times longer than the age of the universe, and so the chances are essentially zero. In contrast, there is an 8% chance of getting 50 heads, a 73% chance of getting from 45 to 55 heads, and a 96% chance of getting from 40 to 60 heads. Disorder is highly likely.

Disorder in a gas

The fantastic growth in the odds favoring disorder that we see in going from 5 to 100 coins continues as the number of entities in the system increases. Let us now imagine applying this approach to perhaps a small sample of gas. Because counting microstates and macrostates involves statistics, this is called statistical analysis    . The macrostates of a gas correspond to its macroscopic properties, such as volume, temperature, and pressure; and its microstates correspond to the detailed description of the positions and velocities of its atoms. Even a small amount of gas has a huge number of atoms: 1 . 0  cm 3 size 12{1 "." 0" cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} of an ideal gas at 1.0 atm and 0º C size 12{0°C} {} has 2 . 7 × 10 19 size 12{2 "." 7 times "10" rSup { size 8{"19"} } } {} atoms. So each macrostate has an immense number of microstates. In plain language, this means that there are an immense number of ways in which the atoms in a gas can be arranged, while still having the same pressure, temperature, and so on.

Questions & Answers

an object that has a small mass and an object has a large mase have the same momentum which has high kinetic energy
Faith Reply
2 stones are thrown vertically upward from the ground, one with 3 times the initial speed of the other. If the faster stone takes 10 s to return to the ground, how long will it take the slower stone to return? If the slower stone reaches a maximum height of H, how high will the faster stone go
Julliene Reply
30s
Gift
is speed the same as velocity
Faith Reply
no
Nebil
in a question i ought to find the momentum but was given just mass and speed
Faith
just multiply mass and speed then you have the magnitude of momentem
Nebil
Yes
Gift
Consider speed to be velocity
Gift
it worked our . . thanks
Faith
Distinguish between semi conductor and extrinsic conductors
Okame Reply
Suppose that a grandfather clock is running slowly; that is, the time it takes to complete each cycle is longer than it should be. Should you (@) shorten or (b) lengthen the pendulam to make the clock keep attain the preferred time?
Aj Reply
I think you shorten am not sure
Uche
shorten it, since that is practice able using the simple pendulum as experiment
Silvia
it'll always give the results needed no need to adjust the length, it is always measured by the starting time and ending time by the clock
Paul
it's not in relation to other clocks
Paul
wat is d formular for newton's third principle
Silvia
okay
Silvia
shorten the pendulum string because the difference in length affects the time of oscillation.if short , the time taken will be adjusted.but if long ,the time taken will be twice the previous cycle.
FADILAT
discuss under damped
Prince Reply
resistance of thermometer in relation to temperature
Ifeanyi Reply
how
Bernard
that resistance is not measured yet, it may be probably in the next generation of scientists
Paul
Is fundamental quantities under physical quantities?
Igwe Reply
please I didn't not understand the concept of the physical therapy
John Reply
physiotherapy - it's a practice of exercising for healthy living.
Paul
what chapter is this?
Anderson
this is not in this book, it's from other experiences.
Paul
please I have probably with calculate please can you please and help me out
John Reply
Sure
Gift
What is Boyce law
Sly Reply
Boyles law states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to pressure acting on that given gas if the temperature remains constant which is: V<k/p or V=k(1/p)
FADILAT
how to convert meter per second to kilometers per hour
grace Reply
Divide with 3.6
Mateo
multiply by (km/1000m) x (3600 s/h) -> 3.6
Muhammad
2 how heat loss is prevented in a vacuum flask
Abdullah Reply
what is science
Helen
logical reasoning for a particular phenomenon.
Ajay
I don't know anything about it 😔. I'm sorry, please forgive 😔
Adarsh
due to non in contact mean no conduction and no convection bec of non conducting base and walls and also their is a grape between the layer like to take the example of thermo flask
Abdul
dimensions v²=u²+2at
Lagben Reply
what if time is not given in finding the average velocity?
Alan Reply
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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