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The bottom line on bank accounts looks like this: low risk means low rate of return but high liquidity.

Bonds

An investor who buys a bond expects to receive a rate of return. However, bonds vary in the rates of return that they offer, according to the riskiness of the borrower. An interest rate can always be divided up into three components (as explained in Choice in a World of Scarcity ): compensation for delaying consumption, an adjustment for an inflationary rise in the overall level of prices, and a risk premium that takes the borrower’s riskiness into account.

The U.S. government is considered to be an extremely safe borrower, so when the U.S. government issues Treasury bonds, it can pay a relatively low rate of interest. Firms that appear to be safe borrowers, perhaps because of their sheer size or because they have consistently earned profits over time, will still pay a higher interest rate than the U.S. government. Firms that appear to be riskier borrowers, perhaps because they are still growing or their businesses appear shaky, will pay the highest interest rates when they issue bonds. Bonds that offer high interest rates to compensate for their relatively high chance of default are called high yield bonds or junk bonds    . A number of today’s well-known firms issued junk bonds in the 1980s when they were starting to grow, including Turner Broadcasting and Microsoft.

Visit this website to read about Treasury bonds.

A bond issued by the U.S. government or a large corporation may seem to be relatively low risk: after all, the issuer of the bond has promised to make certain payments over time, and except for rare cases of bankruptcy, these payments will be made. If the issuer of a corporate bond fails to make the payments that it owes to its bondholders, the bondholders can require that the company declare bankruptcy, sell off its assets, and pay them as much as it can. Even in the case of junk bonds, a wise investor can reduce the risk by purchasing bonds from a wide range of different companies since, even if a few firms go broke and do not pay, they are not all likely to go bankrupt.

As we noted before, bonds carry an interest rate risk. For example, imagine you decide to buy a 10-year bond that would pay an annual interest rate of 8%. Soon after you buy the bond, interest rates on bonds rise, so that now similar companies are paying an annual rate of 12%. Anyone who buys a bond now can receive annual payments of $120 per year, but since your bond was issued at an interest rate of 8%, you have tied up $1,000 and receive payments of only $80 per year. In the meaningful sense of opportunity cost, you are missing out on the higher payments that you could have received. Furthermore, the amount you should be willing to pay now for future payments can be calculated. To place a present discounted value on a future payment, decide what you would need in the present to equal a certain amount in the future. This calculation will require an interest rate. For example, if the interest rate is 25%, then a payment of $125 a year from now will have a present discounted value of $100—that is, you could take $100 in the present and have $125 in the future. (This is discussed further in the appendix on Present Discounted Value .)

Questions & Answers

how does elasticity helps in our daily lives
Chris Reply
it help me a lot, in search for slipper I can purchase shoe, in such for car I can purchase bike it helps a lot to everyone in the world.
Jonathan
List and explain four factors of production
Vuyo Reply
capital labour entrepreneur natural resources
Thembi
land labour entrepreneur capital
Ebrima
What is supply
Ogodo Reply
when the supply decreases demand also decreases
Thembi
supply is the quantity of good and services a producer is willing to supply to the market for sale at a particular price
Ebrima
types of demand and the explanation
akin Reply
what is demand
akin Reply
other things remaining same if demend is increases supply is also decrease and if demend is decrease supply is also increases is called the demand
Mian
if the demand increase supply also increases
Thembi
you are wrong this is the law of demand and not the definition
Tarasum
Demand is the willingness of buy and ability to buy in a specific time period in specific place. Mian you are saying law of demand but not in proper way. you have to keep studying more. because its very basic things in Economics.
Hamza
Demand is the price of Quantity goods and services in which consumer's are willing and able to offer at a price in the market over a period of time
Umar
Demand is the quantity of goods and services that the consumer are willing and able to buy at a alternative prices over a given period of time. But mind you demand is quite different from need and want.
Tarasum
Demand can be defined as the graphical representation between price&demand
alkasim
sorry demand is nt a graphical representation between price and quantity demand but instead that is demand curve.
Ebrima
Demand is the willingness and ability of a consumer to buy a quantity of a good over a given period of time assuming all other things remain constant.
Vedaant
Demand is define as the good's and services,that a consumer is willing and able to purchase at a particular period of time.
Jonathan
what is commercialization?
Doris Reply
commercial is the process of changing non profit orientating organisation to profit orientating organisation.
Ebrima
How to talk loan for bank?
Alfred Reply
what is the meaning of gpa?
Ritisha Reply
Answer: GPA stands for Grade Point Average. It is a standard way of measuring academic achievement in the U.S. Basically, it goes as follows: Each course is given a certain number of "units" or "credits", depending on the content of the course.
Yusuf
what is small and Microbuisenes
tadesse Reply
What is fiscal policy
Dansofo
Who is the funder of Economic
Dansofo
founder , that is Adam Smith
Daniel
what is model
Daniel Reply
The wealth of Nations
Yusuf Reply
the wealth of nations, is it the first?
Umar
Yes very sure it was released in 1759
Yusuf
thank you Yusuf.
Umar
then when did he died?
Umar
17 July 1790 Born: 16 June 1723, Kirkcaldy, United Kingdom Place of death: Panmure House, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Yusuf
1790
Yusuf
that's my today questions, thank you Yusuf it's bed time see u after.
Umar
what is fiscal policy
kemigisha Reply
what's mode?
Umar Reply
mode is the highest occurring frequency in a distribution
Bola
mode is the most commonly occurring item in a set of data.
Umar
Please, what is the difference between monopoly and monopsony?
Olaleye Reply
is there monopsony word?
Umar
I have no idea though
Umar
please, in which year Adam smith was born?
Umar
monopsony is when there's only one buyer while monopoly is when there's only one producer.
Bola
who have idea on Banter
Ibrahim
like trade by barter?
Bola
Monopoly is when there's excessively one seller and there is no entry in the market while monopsony is when there is one buyer
kemigisha
Adam smith was born in 1723
Bola
 (uncountable) Good humoured, playful, typically spontaneous conversation. verb (intransitive) To engage in banter or playful conversation. (intransitive) To play or do something amusing. (transitive) To tease mildly.
Umar
which book Adam smith published first? the first book of Adam smith pls.
Umar
wealth on nation, 1776
Daniel
what is market power and how can it affect an economy?
Gab Reply
market power:- where a firm is said to be a price setter.market power benefits the powerful at the expense of others.
Umar
Market power refers to the ability of a firm (or group of firms) to raise and maintain price above the level that would prevail under competition is referred to as market or monopoly power. The exercise of market power leads to reduced output and loss of economic welfare
Kartheek
find information about the national budget
Molahlegi
Expalin why demand curve for a perfectly competitive firm is perfectly elastic and eams normal profit in the long run
Abdi Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, University of houston downtown: microeconomics. OpenStax CNX. May 28, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11651/1.2
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