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By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Discuss the relationship between bank regulation and monetary policy
  • Explain bank supervision
  • Explain how deposit insurance and lender of last resort are two strategies to protect against bank runs

A safe and stable national financial system is a critical concern of the Federal Reserve . The goal is not only to protect individuals’ savings, but to protect the integrity of the financial system itself. This esoteric task is usually behind the scenes, but came into view during the 2008–2009 financial crisis, when for a brief period of time, critical parts of the financial system failed and firms became unable to obtain financing for ordinary parts of their business. Imagine if suddenly you were unable to access the money in your bank accounts because your checks were not accepted for payment and your debit cards were declined. This gives an idea of what a failure of the payments/financial system is like.

Bank regulation is intended to maintain the solvency of banks by avoiding excessive risk. Regulation falls into a number of categories, including reserve requirements, capital requirements, and restrictions on the types of investments banks may make. In Money and Banking , we learned that banks are required to hold a minimum percentage of their deposits on hand as reserves    . “On hand” is a bit of a misnomer because, while a portion of bank reserves are held as cash in the bank, the majority are held in the bank’s account at the Federal Reserve, and their purpose is to cover desired withdrawals by depositors. Another part of bank regulation is restrictions on the types of investments banks are allowed to make. Banks are allowed to make loans to businesses, individuals, and other banks. They are allowed to purchase U.S. Treasury securities but, to protect depositors, they are not permitted to invest in the stock market or other assets that are perceived as too risky.

Bank capital is the difference between a bank’s assets and its liabilities. In other words, it is a bank’s net worth    . A bank must have positive net worth; otherwise it is insolvent or bankrupt, meaning it would not have enough assets to pay back its liabilities. Regulation requires that banks maintain a minimum net worth, usually expressed as a percent of their assets, to protect their depositors and other creditors.

Visit this website to read the brief article, “Stop Confusing Monetary Policy and Bank Regulation.”

Bank supervision

Several government agencies monitor the balance sheets of banks to make sure they have positive net worth and are not taking too high a level of risk. Within the U.S. Department of the Treasury, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency has a national staff of bank examiners who conduct on-site reviews of the 1,500 or so of the largest national banks. The bank examiners also review any foreign banks that have branches in the United States. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency also monitors and regulates about 800 savings and loan institutions.

Questions & Answers

What is the role of price system in The market economy
Cyrielle Reply
(1).Income is the main determined of macro economics. (a). true (b). false
Manisha Reply
yes
Anjali
tell me correct ans with examples!!
Manisha
yes
The
what yes yes?
Manisha
mam actually I want to say that income is not the main determinant of macro economics.
The
based on your knowledge about the production possibility frontier,demonstrate an assumption of supposed schedule of ppe for the production of rice and face masks by Bangladesh.use graphical representation as well
Ashraf Reply
hay
Ashraf
hlo
Karan
can you answer this
Ashraf
whats tradeoff
JUSTIN Reply
tradeoff is a balance achieved between two desirable but conflicting things
Faith
can I read in Hindi?
Rashmi Reply
don't know..
Azka
why not
Omid
Omid Amini....how?
Rashmi
sure thing
Faith
mention two necessities of estimation of national income in india ?
Krishna Reply
what means the supply
Abdourahamane Reply
hello
mosisa
hii
SHWETA
hi
Aleem
its means amount of product available right now.
Aleem
is everything important here🙂
Alizy
I mean anything*
Alizy
u can read it
Aleem
it's mean something needed or wanted
Alizy
where are from shweta
Aleem
where are you from shweta
Aleem
Hello
Anas
it may mean the stock available
DR
to make something needed or wanted available to someone
Faith
is someone who manufactures something
Faith
What is the cost-benefit analysis?
Hannah Reply
A cost benefit analysis is a process by which organizations can analyze decisions, systems or projects, or determine a value for intangibles. The model is built by identifying the benefits of an action as well as the associated costs and subtracting the costs from benefits.
sanga
thanks!
Hannah
Cost benefit analysis is a process used primarily by businesses that weighs the sum of the benefits, such as financial gain, of an action against the negatives, or costs, of that action.
ALIM
process of cost benefit analysis and decision making crieteria
Santosh
hello everyone
BtsARMY
hello every one,
Dereje
hello everyone
waqar
what is the opportunity cost?
SHWETA
The next best option forgone is call the Opportunity cost of selection one.
Oshadi
who is producer?
rishabh Reply
karan johar
Mohd
shut up mr.mohd
rishabh
it's serious question..
rishabh
shut up mr.mohd
rishabh
simple who produce good
Alizy
who is aconsumer?
Ritik Reply
who uses the commodity
Kanza
a consumer is one that buys good for consumption .
rishabh
Kanza consumers uses the commodity..
rishabh
why do we put tariff on import goods
Salam Reply
Maybe to give national enterprises better opportunities than foreign ones... or just to get more money to the national budget in any way possible. I suppose it allows also to control import and therefore its influence on national economy and other countries economy too.
Pawe
i think to control import or for development of his own industry
RAJPOOTCHANAL
what were the events during the great depression that made classical economy tenets ineffective
Alby Reply
please what is the answer for the following question; derive the expression for a two sector Keynesian model from sowotuom land economy and state all the two components in the expression.
Alby Reply
No idea
ahmad
meaning nature and scope of macroeconomics
Diksha Reply
meaning of macroeconomics
Diksha
meaning of macroeconomics
Diksha
meaning of macroeconomics
Diksha
Macroeconomics covers aggregate or in simple words overall economy of country or world while microeconomics was just concerned with individual economies
Hamza
Hope this helped you, you can search it more on Google there is a YouTube page by the name of jacob Clifford
Hamza
How aggregate demand and output gap are related explain in the light of keynesian cross diagram
Muhammad Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Macroeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Jun 16, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11626/1.10
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