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  • It is important to be able to quantify the changes that take place during a chemical reaction.
  • The mole (n) is a SI unit that is used to describe an amount of substance that contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon.
  • The number of particles in a mole is called the Avogadro constant and its value is 6 , 022 × 10 23 . These particles could be atoms, molecules or other particle units, depending on the substance.
  • The molar mass (M) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is measured in grams per mole or g · mol - 1 . The numerical value of an element's molar mass is the same as its relative atomic mass. For a compound, the molar mass has the same numerical value as the molecular mass of that compound.
  • The relationship between moles (n), mass in grams (m) and molar mass (M) is defined by the following equation:
    n = m M
  • In a balanced chemical equation, the number in front of the chemical symbols describes the mole ratio of the reactants and products.
  • The empirical formula of a compound is an expression of the relative number of each type of atom in the compound.
  • The molecular formula of a compound describes the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound.
  • The formula of a substance can be used to calculate the percentage by mass that each element contributes to the compound.
  • The percentage composition of a substance can be used to deduce its chemical formula.
  • One mole of gas occupies a volume of 22,4 dm 3 .
  • The concentration of a solution can be calculated using the following equation,
    C = n V
    where C is the concentration (in mol · dm - 3 ), n is the number of moles of solute dissolved in the solution and V is the volume of the solution (in dm - 3 ).
  • Molarity is a measure of the concentration of a solution, and its units are mol · dm - 3 .
  • Stoichiometry is the calculation of the quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. It is also the numerical relationship between reactants and products.
  • The theoretical yield of a reaction is the maximum amount of product that we expect to get out of a reaction

End of chapter exercises

  1. Write only the word/term for each of the following descriptions:
    1. the mass of one mole of a substance
    2. the number of particles in one mole of a substance
  2. Multiple choice: Choose the one correct answer from those given.
    1. 5 g of magnesium chloride is formed as the product of a chemical reaction. Select the true statement from the answers below:
      1. 0.08 moles of magnesium chloride are formed in the reaction
      2. the number of atoms of Cl in the product is 0 , 6022 × 10 23
      3. the number of atoms of Mg is 0,05
      4. the atomic ratio of Mg atoms to Cl atoms in the product is 1:1
    2. 2 moles of oxygen gas react with hydrogen. What is the mass of oxygen in the reactants?
      1. 32 g
      2. 0,125 g
      3. 64 g
      4. 0,063 g
    3. In the compound potassium sulphate ( K 2 SO 4 ), oxygen makes up x% of the mass of the compound. x = ...
      1. 36.8
      2. 9,2
      3. 4
      4. 18,3
    4. The molarity of a 150 cm 3 solution, containing 5 g of NaCl is...
      1. 0,09 M
      2. 5,7 × 10 - 4 M
      3. 0,57 M
      4. 0,03 M
  3. Calculate the number of moles in:
    1. 5 g of methane ( CH 4 )
    2. 3,4 g of hydrochloric acid
    3. 6,2 g of potassium permanganate ( KMnO 4 )
    4. 4 g of neon
    5. 9,6 kg of titanium tetrachloride ( TiCl 4 )
  4. Calculate the mass of:
    1. 0,2 mols of potassium hydroxide ( KOH )
    2. 0,47 mols of nitrogen dioxide
    3. 5,2 mols of helium
    4. 0,05 mols of copper (II) chloride ( CuCl 2 )
    5. 31,31 × 10 23 molecules of carbon monoxide ( CO )
  5. Calculate the percentage that each element contributes to the overall mass of:
    1. Chloro-benzene ( C 6 H 5 Cl )
    2. Lithium hydroxide ( LiOH )
  6. CFC's (chlorofluorocarbons) are one of the gases that contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer. A chemist analysed a CFC and found that it contained 58,64% chlorine, 31,43% fluorine and 9,93% carbon. What is the empirical formula?
  7. 14 g of nitrogen combines with oxygen to form 46 g of a nitrogen oxide. Use this information to work out the formula of the oxide.
  8. Iodine can exist as one of three oxides ( I 2 O 4 ; I 2 O 5 ; I 4 O 9 ). A chemist has produced one of these oxides and wishes to know which one they have. If he started with 508 g of iodine and formed 652 g of the oxide, which form has he produced?
  9. A fluorinated hydrocarbon (a hydrocarbon is a chemical compound containing hydrogen and carbon.) was analysed and found to contain 8,57% H, 51,05% C and 40,38% F.
    1. What is its empirical formula?
    2. What is the molecular formula if the molar mass is 94,1 g mol 1 ?
  10. Copper sulphate crystals often include water. A chemist is trying to determine the number of moles of water in the copper sulphate crystals. She weighs out 3 g of copper sulphate and heats this. After heating, she finds that the mass is 1,9 g. What is the number of moles of water in the crystals? (Copper sulphate is represented by CuSO 4 x H 2 O ).
  11. 300 cm 3 of a 0,1 mol · dm - 3 solution of sulphuric acid is added to 200 cm 3 of a 0,5 mol · dm - 3 solution of sodium hydroxide.
    1. Write down a balanced equation for the reaction which takes place when these two solutions are mixed.
    2. Calculate the number of moles of sulphuric acid which were added to the sodium hydroxide solution.
    3. Is the number of moles of sulphuric acid enough to fully neutralise the sodium hydroxide solution? Support your answer by showing all relevant calculations. (IEB Paper 2 2004)
  12. A learner is asked to make 200 cm 3 of sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) solution of concentration 0,5 mol · dm - 3 .
    1. Determine the mass of sodium hydroxide pellets he needs to use to do this.
    2. Using an accurate balance the learner accurately measures the correct mass of the NaOH pellets. To the pellets he now adds exactly 200 cm 3 of pure water. Will his solution have the correct concentration? Explain your answer.
    3. The learner then takes 300 cm 3 of a 0,1 mol · dm - 3 solution of sulphuric acid ( H 2 SO 4 ) and adds it to 200 cm 3 of a 0,5 mol · dm - 3 solution of NaOH at 25 0 C .
    4. Write down a balanced equation for the reaction which takes place when these two solutions are mixed.
    5. Calculate the number of moles of H 2 SO 4 which were added to the NaOH solution.
    6. Is the number of moles of H 2 SO 4 calculated in the previous question enough to fully neutralise the NaOH solution? Support your answer by showing all the relevant calculations. (IEB Paper 2, 2004)

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Mukesh Reply
Properties of longitudinal waves
Sharoon Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11305/1.7
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