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Gavin Baker's contribution to the OSS and OER in Education Series. In this post, he writes about linkages between open access journal literature and open educational resources, arguing that free education needs free scholarship.

Author - Gavin Baker, "Open Access Journal Literature is an Open Educational Resource". Originally submitted September 5th, 2007 to the OSS and OER in Education Series, Terra Incognita blog (Penn State World Campus), edited by Ken Udas.

In addition to FOSS and OERs, there is another phenomenon which is having a marked impact on education – in particular, on higher education. This movement shares a similar philosophy, focuses on making content available online gratis, uses open copyright licenses, and most of the noteworthy software used by the movement is FOSS. I’m writing about the movement for open access to peer-reviewed scholarly journal literature.

Advocates of OERs should seek to understand the open access movement – not only out of curiosity over the linkages or similarities between the two movements (and there are many) but because, as I will argue, free education needs free scholarship.

(Readers already familiar with OA may wish to skip ahead to the section entitled “ Why free education needs free scholarship ”.)

Open access: low-hanging fruit of free culture

The OA movement deals with (in the words of the Budapest Open Access Initiative ), “that which scholars give to the world without expectation of payment” – namely, peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles.

To borrow the words of Peter Suber , open access is a response both to problems and to opportunities. OA tries to solve real problems: readers have limited access to knowledge, authors have limited impact for their scholarship, libraries have limited budgets for journal subscriptions. On the other hand, OA also aims to capitalize on opportunities: the potential for non-rivalrous, low cost distribution on the Internet, along with the information processing capacity of computers.

There is not complete consensus on the precise definition of an open access work (I understand this is a similar situation with OERs). However, two influential statements provide definitions: the Budapest Open Access Initiative and the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing . 1

Generally speaking, according to these definitions, open access literature is:

  • Made available gratis , or “free as in ‘free beer’”, on the public Internet. There is no cost to access the content, aside from any costs incidental to access the Internet itself. Stated differently, access barriers to the content are removed.
  • Libre , or “free as in ‘free speech’”. Permission barriers to use of the content are removed. The definitions of Budapest and Bethesda differ slightly on the details here, but both require the freedom to use and redistribute, subject to attribution of authorship. The biggest discrepancies between the two definitions are on the subjects of derivative works and commercial use:
    • Bethesda includes the right to make and distribute derivative works, but is silent on the right to make commercial use.
    • Budapest states that authors should have “control over the integrity of their work”, which restricts the ability to make derivative works. The declaration further states that integrity of the work and attribution of authorship should be “the only constraint[s] on reproduction and distribution”, which implies the right to make commercial use.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, The impact of open source software on education. OpenStax CNX. Mar 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10431/1.7
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