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Integrated Concepts

(a) Assuming 95.0% efficiency for the conversion of electrical power by the motor, what current must the 12.0-V batteries of a 750-kg electric car be able to supply: (a) To accelerate from rest to 25.0 m/s in 1.00 min? (b) To climb a 2.00 × 10 2 -m -high hill in 2.00 min at a constant 25.0-m/s speed while exerting 5.00 × 10 2 N of force to overcome air resistance and friction? (c) To travel at a constant 25.0-m/s speed, exerting a 5.00 × 10 2 N force to overcome air resistance and friction? See [link] .

This REVAi, an electric car, gets recharged on a street in London. (credit: Frank Hebbert)

(a) 343 A

(b) 2 . 17 × 10 3 A size 12{2 "." "17"´"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " A"} {}

(c) 1.10 × 10 3 A size 12{2 "." "17"´"10" rSup { size 8{4} } " A"} {}

Integrated Concepts

A light-rail commuter train draws 630 A of 650-V DC electricity when accelerating. (a) What is its power consumption rate in kilowatts? (b) How long does it take to reach 20.0 m/s starting from rest if its loaded mass is 5 . 30 × 10 4 kg size 12{5 "." "30"´"10" rSup { size 8{4} } " kg"} {} , assuming 95.0% efficiency and constant power? (c) Find its average acceleration. (d) Discuss how the acceleration you found for the light-rail train compares to what might be typical for an automobile.

Integrated Concepts

(a) An aluminum power transmission line has a resistance of 0 . 0580 Ω / km size 12{0 "." "0580" %OMEGA /"km"} {} . What is its mass per kilometer? (b) What is the mass per kilometer of a copper line having the same resistance? A lower resistance would shorten the heating time. Discuss the practical limits to speeding the heating by lowering the resistance.

(a) 1.23 × 10 3 kg

(b) 2.64 × 10 3 kg

Integrated Concepts

(a) An immersion heater utilizing 120 V can raise the temperature of a 1.00 × 10 2 -g aluminum cup containing 350 g of water from 20 . C size 12{"20" "." 0°"C"} {} to 95 . C size 12{"95" "." 0°"C"} {} in 2.00 min. Find its resistance, assuming it is constant during the process. (b) A lower resistance would shorten the heating time. Discuss the practical limits to speeding the heating by lowering the resistance.

Integrated Concepts

(a) What is the cost of heating a hot tub containing 1500 kg of water from 10 . C size 12{"10" "." 0°"C"} {} to 40 . C size 12{"40" "." 0°"C"} {} , assuming 75.0% efficiency to account for heat transfer to the surroundings? The cost of electricity is 9 cents/kW h size 12{"12"" cents/kW" cdot "h"} {} . (b) What current was used by the 220-V AC electric heater, if this took 4.00 h?

Unreasonable Results

(a) What current is needed to transmit 1.00 × 10 2 MW of power at 480 V? (b) What power is dissipated by the transmission lines if they have a 1 . 00 - Ω size 12{1 "." "00""-" %OMEGA } {} resistance? (c) What is unreasonable about this result? (d) Which assumptions are unreasonable, or which premises are inconsistent?

(a) 2.08 × 10 5 A

(b) 4.33 × 10 4 MW

(c) The transmission lines dissipate more power than they are supposed to transmit.

(d) A voltage of 480 V is unreasonably low for a transmission voltage. Long-distance transmission lines are kept at much higher voltages (often hundreds of kilovolts) to reduce power losses.

Unreasonable Results

(a) What current is needed to transmit 1.00 × 10 2 MW of power at 10.0 kV? (b) Find the resistance of 1.00 km of wire that would cause a 0.0100% power loss. (c) What is the diameter of a 1.00-km-long copper wire having this resistance? (d) What is unreasonable about these results? (e) Which assumptions are unreasonable, or which premises are inconsistent?

Construct Your Own Problem

Consider an electric immersion heater used to heat a cup of water to make tea. Construct a problem in which you calculate the needed resistance of the heater so that it increases the temperature of the water and cup in a reasonable amount of time. Also calculate the cost of the electrical energy used in your process. Among the things to be considered are the voltage used, the masses and heat capacities involved, heat losses, and the time over which the heating takes place. Your instructor may wish for you to consider a thermal safety switch (perhaps bimetallic) that will halt the process before damaging temperatures are reached in the immersion unit.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
How we can toraidal magnetic field
Aditya Reply
How we can create polaidal magnetic field
Aditya
4
Mykayuh Reply
Because I'm writing a report and I would like to be really precise for the references
Gre Reply
where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!
Gre Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Physics 101. OpenStax CNX. Jan 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11479/1.1
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