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With a 1200-W toaster, how much electrical energy is needed to make a slice of toast (cooking time = 1 minute)? At $\text{9.0 cents/kW \xb7 h}$ , how much does this cost?
What would be the maximum cost of a CFL such that the total cost (investment plus operating) would be the same for both CFL and incandescent 60-W bulbs? Assume the cost of the incandescent bulb is 25 cents and that electricity costs $\text{10 cents/kWh}$ . Calculate the cost for 1000 hours, as in the cost effectiveness of CFL example.
$6.25
Some makes of older cars have 6.00-V electrical systems. (a) What is the hot resistance of a 30.0-W headlight in such a car? (b) What current flows through it?
Alkaline batteries have the advantage of putting out constant voltage until very nearly the end of their life. How long will an alkaline battery rated at $1\text{.}\text{00 A}\cdot \text{h}$ and 1.58 V keep a 1.00-W flashlight bulb burning?
1.58 h
A cauterizer, used to stop bleeding in surgery, puts out 2.00 mA at 15.0 kV. (a) What is its power output? (b) What is the resistance of the path?
The average television is said to be on 6 hours per day. Estimate the yearly cost of electricity to operate 100 million TVs, assuming their power consumption averages 150 W and the cost of electricity averages $\text{12}\text{.}0\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{cents/kW}\cdot \text{h}$ .
$3.94 billion/year
An old lightbulb draws only 50.0 W, rather than its original 60.0 W, due to evaporative thinning of its filament. By what factor is its diameter reduced, assuming uniform thinning along its length? Neglect any effects caused by temperature differences.
00-gauge copper wire has a diameter of 9.266 mm. Calculate the power loss in a kilometer of such wire when it carries $1.00\times {\text{10}}^{\text{2}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{A}$ .
25.5 W
Integrated Concepts
Cold vaporizers pass a current through water, evaporating it with only a small increase in temperature. One such home device is rated at 3.50 A and utilizes 120 V AC with 95.0% efficiency. (a) What is the vaporization rate in grams per minute? (b) How much water must you put into the vaporizer for 8.00 h of overnight operation? (See [link] .)
Integrated Concepts
(a) What energy is dissipated by a lightning bolt having a 20,000-A current, a voltage of $1.00\times {\text{10}}^{\text{2}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{MV}$ , and a length of 1.00 ms? (b) What mass of tree sap could be raised from $\text{18}\text{.}\mathrm{0\xba}\text{C}$ to its boiling point and then evaporated by this energy, assuming sap has the same thermal characteristics as water?
(a) $2\text{.}\text{00}\times {\text{10}}^{9}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$
(b) 769 kg
Integrated Concepts
What current must be produced by a 12.0-V battery-operated bottle warmer in order to heat 75.0 g of glass, 250 g of baby formula, and $3.00\times {\text{10}}^{\text{2}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{g}$ of aluminum from $\text{20}\text{.}\mathrm{0\xba}\text{C}$ to $\text{90}\text{.}\mathrm{0\xba}\text{C}$ in 5.00 min?
Integrated Concepts
How much time is needed for a surgical cauterizer to raise the temperature of 1.00 g of tissue from $\text{37}\text{.}\mathrm{0\xba}\text{C}$ to $\text{100\xba}\text{C}$ and then boil away 0.500 g of water, if it puts out 2.00 mA at 15.0 kV? Ignore heat transfer to the surroundings.
45.0 s
Integrated Concepts
Hydroelectric generators (see [link] ) at Hoover Dam produce a maximum current of $8.00\times {\text{10}}^{\text{3}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{A}$ at 250 kV. (a) What is the power output? (b) The water that powers the generators enters and leaves the system at low speed (thus its kinetic energy does not change) but loses 160 m in altitude. How many cubic meters per second are needed, assuming 85.0% efficiency?
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