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Making connections: take-home experiment—electrical energy use inventory

1) Make a list of the power ratings on a range of appliances in your home or room. Explain why something like a toaster has a higher rating than a digital clock. Estimate the energy consumed by these appliances in an average day (by estimating their time of use). Some appliances might only state the operating current. If the household voltage is 120 V, then use P = IV size 12{P = ital "IV"} {} . 2) Check out the total wattage used in the rest rooms of your school’s floor or building. (You might need to assume the long fluorescent lights in use are rated at 32 W.) Suppose that the building was closed all weekend and that these lights were left on from 6 p.m. Friday until 8 a.m. Monday. What would this oversight cost? How about for an entire year of weekends?

Section summary

  • Electric power P size 12{P} {} is the rate (in watts) that energy is supplied by a source or dissipated by a device.
  • Three expressions for electrical power are
    P = IV, size 12{P = ital "IV,"} {}
    P = V 2 R , size 12{P = { {V rSup { size 8{2} } } over {R} } ","} {}

    and

    P = I 2 R . size 12{P = I rSup { size 8{2} } R"."} {}
  • The energy used by a device with a power P size 12{P} {} over a time t size 12{t} {} is E = Pt size 12{E = ital "Pt"} {} .

Conceptual questions

Why do incandescent lightbulbs grow dim late in their lives, particularly just before their filaments break?

The power dissipated in a resistor is given by P = V 2 / R size 12{P = V rSup { size 8{2} } /R} {} , which means power decreases if resistance increases. Yet this power is also given by P = I 2 R size 12{P = I rSup { size 8{2} } R} {} , which means power increases if resistance increases. Explain why there is no contradiction here.

Problem exercises

What is the power of a 1.00 × 10 2 MV lightning bolt having a current of 2.00 × 10 4 A ?

2 . 00 × 10 12 W size 12{2 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } " W"} {}

What power is supplied to the starter motor of a large truck that draws 250 A of current from a 24.0-V battery hookup?

A charge of 4.00 C of charge passes through a pocket calculator’s solar cells in 4.00 h. What is the power output, given the calculator’s voltage output is 3.00 V? (See [link] .)

Photograph of a small calculator having a strip of solar cells just above the keys.
The strip of solar cells just above the keys of this calculator convert light to electricity to supply its energy needs. (credit: Evan-Amos, Wikimedia Commons)

How many watts does a flashlight that has 6.00 × 10 2 C pass through it in 0.500 h use if its voltage is 3.00 V?

Find the power dissipated in each of these extension cords: (a) an extension cord having a 0 . 0600 - Ω size 12{0 "." "0600-" %OMEGA } {} resistance and through which 5.00 A is flowing; (b) a cheaper cord utilizing thinner wire and with a resistance of 0 . 300 Ω . size 12{0 "." "300" %OMEGA } {}

(a) 1.50 W

(b) 7.50 W

Verify that the units of a volt-ampere are watts, as implied by the equation P = IV size 12{P = ital "IV"} {} .

Show that the units 1 V 2 / Ω = 1 W size 12{1" V" rSup { size 8{2} } / %OMEGA =1" W"} {} , as implied by the equation P = V 2 / R size 12{P = V rSup { size 8{2} } /R} {} .

V 2 Ω = V 2 V/A = AV = C s J C = J s = 1 W

Show that the units 1 A 2 Ω = 1 W size 12{1" V" rSup { size 8{2} } / %OMEGA =1" W"} {} , as implied by the equation P = I 2 R size 12{P = I rSup { size 8{2} } R} {} .

Verify the energy unit equivalence that 1 kW h = 3 . 60 × 10 6 J size 12{1" kW" cdot "h = 3" "." "60"´"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {} .

1 kW h= 1 × 10 3 J 1 s 1 h 3600 s 1 h = 3 . 60 × 10 6 J size 12{1" kW" cdot "h=" left ( { {1 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " J"} over {"1 s"} } right ) left (1" h" right ) left ( { {"3600"" s"} over {"1 h"} } right )=3 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {}

Electrons in an X-ray tube are accelerated through 1.00 × 10 2 kV and directed toward a target to produce X-rays. Calculate the power of the electron beam in this tube if it has a current of 15.0 mA.

An electric water heater consumes 5.00 kW for 2.00 h per day. What is the cost of running it for one year if electricity costs 12.0 cents /kW h size 12{"12" "." 0" cents/kW" cdot h} {} ? See [link] .

Photograph of an electric hot water heater connected to the electric and water supply
On-demand electric hot water heater. Heat is supplied to water only when needed. (credit: aviddavid, Flickr)

$438/y

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
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Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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How we can toraidal magnetic field
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How we can create polaidal magnetic field
Aditya
4
Mykayuh Reply
Because I'm writing a report and I would like to be really precise for the references
Gre Reply
where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!
Gre Reply
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, Physics 101. OpenStax CNX. Jan 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11479/1.1
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