# 14.4 Electric power and energy  (Page 2/7)

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Different insights can be gained from the three different expressions for electric power. For example, $P={V}^{2}/R$ implies that the lower the resistance connected to a given voltage source, the greater the power delivered. Furthermore, since voltage is squared in $P={V}^{2}/R$ , the effect of applying a higher voltage is perhaps greater than expected. Thus, when the voltage is doubled to a 25-W bulb, its power nearly quadruples to about 100 W, burning it out. If the bulb’s resistance remained constant, its power would be exactly 100 W, but at the higher temperature its resistance is higher, too.

## Calculating power dissipation and current: hot and cold power

(a) Consider the examples given in Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits and Resistance and Resistivity . Then find the power dissipated by the car headlight in these examples, both when it is hot and when it is cold. (b) What current does it draw when cold?

Strategy for (a)

For the hot headlight, we know voltage and current, so we can use $P=\text{IV}$ to find the power. For the cold headlight, we know the voltage and resistance, so we can use $P={V}^{2}/R$ to find the power.

Solution for (a)

Entering the known values of current and voltage for the hot headlight, we obtain

$P=\text{IV}=\left(2\text{.}\text{50 A}\right)\left(\text{12}\text{.}\text{0 V}\right)=\text{30}\text{.}\text{0 W.}$

The cold resistance was $0\text{.}\text{350}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\Omega$ , and so the power it uses when first switched on is

$P=\frac{{V}^{2}}{R}=\frac{\left(\text{12}\text{.}\text{0 V}{\right)}^{2}}{0\text{.}\text{350}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\Omega }=\text{411 W.}$

Discussion for (a)

The 30 W dissipated by the hot headlight is typical. But the 411 W when cold is surprisingly higher. The initial power quickly decreases as the bulb’s temperature increases and its resistance increases.

Strategy and Solution for (b)

The current when the bulb is cold can be found several different ways. We rearrange one of the power equations, $P={I}^{2}R$ , and enter known values, obtaining

$I=\sqrt{\frac{P}{R}}=\sqrt{\frac{\text{411 W}}{0\text{.}\text{350}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\Omega }}=\text{34}\text{.}\text{3 A.}$

Discussion for (b)

The cold current is remarkably higher than the steady-state value of 2.50 A, but the current will quickly decline to that value as the bulb’s temperature increases. Most fuses and circuit breakers (used to limit the current in a circuit) are designed to tolerate very high currents briefly as a device comes on. In some cases, such as with electric motors, the current remains high for several seconds, necessitating special “slow blow” fuses.

## The cost of electricity

The more electric appliances you use and the longer they are left on, the higher your electric bill. This familiar fact is based on the relationship between energy and power. You pay for the energy used. Since $P=E/t$ , we see that

$E=\text{Pt}$

is the energy used by a device using power $P$ for a time interval $t$ . For example, the more lightbulbs burning, the greater $P$ used; the longer they are on, the greater $t$ is. The energy unit on electric bills is the kilowatt-hour ( $\text{kW}\cdot \text{h}$ ), consistent with the relationship $E=\text{Pt}$ . It is easy to estimate the cost of operating electric appliances if you have some idea of their power consumption rate in watts or kilowatts, the time they are on in hours, and the cost per kilowatt-hour for your electric utility. Kilowatt-hours, like all other specialized energy units such as food calories, can be converted to joules. You can prove to yourself that $\text{1 kW}\cdot \text{h = 3}\text{.}6×{\text{10}}^{6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ .

#### Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
How we can toraidal magnetic field
How we can create polaidal magnetic field
4
Because I'm writing a report and I would like to be really precise for the references
where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!