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Heats of fusion and vaporization Values quoted at the normal melting and boiling temperatures at standard atmospheric pressure (1 atm).
L f L v
Substance Melting point (ºC) kJ/kg kcal/kg Boiling point (°C) kJ/kg kcal/kg
Helium −269.7 5.23 1.25 −268.9 20.9 4.99
Hydrogen −259.3 58.6 14.0 −252.9 452 108
Nitrogen −210.0 25.5 6.09 −195.8 201 48.0
Oxygen −218.8 13.8 3.30 −183.0 213 50.9
Ethanol −114 104 24.9 78.3 854 204
Ammonia −75 108 −33.4 1370 327
Mercury −38.9 11.8 2.82 357 272 65.0
Water 0.00 334 79.8 100.0 2256 At 37 . C (body temperature), the heat of vaporization L v size 12{L rSub { size 8{v} } } {} for water is 2430 kJ/kg or 580 kcal/kg 539 At 37. C (body temperature), the heat of vaporization L v for water is 2430 kJ/kg or 580 kcal/kg
Sulfur 119 38.1 9.10 444.6 326 77.9
Lead 327 24.5 5.85 1750 871 208
Antimony 631 165 39.4 1440 561 134
Aluminum 660 380 90 2450 11400 2720
Silver 961 88.3 21.1 2193 2336 558
Gold 1063 64.5 15.4 2660 1578 377
Copper 1083 134 32.0 2595 5069 1211
Uranium 1133 84 20 3900 1900 454
Tungsten 3410 184 44 5900 4810 1150

Phase changes can have a tremendous stabilizing effect even on temperatures that are not near the melting and boiling points, because evaporation and condensation (conversion of a gas into a liquid state) occur even at temperatures below the boiling point. Take, for example, the fact that air temperatures in humid climates rarely go above 35 . C , which is because most heat transfer goes into evaporating water into the air. Similarly, temperatures in humid weather rarely fall below the dew point because enormous heat is released when water vapor condenses.

We examine the effects of phase change more precisely by considering adding heat into a sample of ice at 20º C ( [link] ). The temperature of the ice rises linearly, absorbing heat at a constant rate of 0 . 50 cal/g ⋅º C until it reaches C . Once at this temperature, the ice begins to melt until all the ice has melted, absorbing 79.8 cal/g of heat. The temperature remains constant at C during this phase change. Once all the ice has melted, the temperature of the liquid water rises, absorbing heat at a new constant rate of 1 . 00 cal/g ⋅º C . At 100º C , the water begins to boil and the temperature again remains constant while the water absorbs 539 cal/g of heat during this phase change. When all the liquid has become steam vapor, the temperature rises again, absorbing heat at a rate of 0 . 482 cal/g ⋅º C .

The figure shows a two-dimensional graph with temperature plotted on the vertical axis from minus twenty to one hundred and twenty degrees Celsius. The horizontal axis is labeled delta Q divided by m and, in parentheses, calories per gram. This horizontal axis goes from zero to eight hundred. A line segment labeled ice extends upward and rightward at about 60 degrees above the horizontal from the point minus twenty degrees Celsius, zero delta Q per m to the point zero degrees Celsius and about 40 delta Q per m. A horizontal line segment labeled ice and water extends rightward from this point to approximately 120 delta Q per m. A line segment labeled water then extends up and to the right at approximately 70 degrees above the horizontal to the point one hundred degrees Celsius and about 200 delta Q per m. From this latter point a horizontal line segment labeled water plus steam extends to the right to about 780 delta Q per m. From here, a final line segment labeled steam extends up and to the right at about 60 degrees above the horizontal to about one hundred and twenty degrees Celsius and 800 delta Q per m.
A graph of temperature versus energy added. The system is constructed so that no vapor evaporates while ice warms to become liquid water, and so that, when vaporization occurs, the vapor remains in of the system. The long stretches of constant temperature values at C and 100º C reflect the large latent heat of melting and vaporization, respectively.

Water can evaporate at temperatures below the boiling point. More energy is required than at the boiling point, because the kinetic energy of water molecules at temperatures below 100º C size 12{"100"°C} {} is less than that at 100º C , hence less energy is available from random thermal motions. Take, for example, the fact that, at body temperature, perspiration from the skin requires a heat input of 2428 kJ/kg, which is about 10 percent higher than the latent heat of vaporization at 100º C . This heat comes from the skin, and thus provides an effective cooling mechanism in hot weather. High humidity inhibits evaporation, so that body temperature might rise, leaving unevaporated sweat on your brow.

Questions & Answers

Calculate the work done by an 85.0-kg man who pushes a crate 4.00 m up along a ramp that makes an angle of 20.0º20.0º with the horizontal. (See [link] .) He exerts a force of 500 N on the crate parallel to the ramp and moves at a constant speed. Be certain to include the work he does on the crate an
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Which is
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Adeshina Reply
the write question should be " How many Topics are in O- Level Physics, or other branches of physics.
how many topic are in physics
Praise what level are you
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Yeah basics of physics prin8
Heat nd Co for a level
yh I need someone to explain something im tryna solve . I'll send the question if u down for it
Tamdy Reply
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I don't know please give the answer
Practice Key Terms 3

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