# 14.1 Types of reactions  (Page 2/4)

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[link] shows some of the general rules about the solubility of different salts based on a number of investigations:

 Salt Solubility Nitrates All are soluble Potassium, sodium and ammonium salts All are soluble Chlorides, bromides and iodides All are soluble except silver, lead(II) and mercury(II) salts (e.g. silver chloride) Sulphates All are soluble except lead(II) sulphate, barium sulphate and calcium sulphate Carbonates All are insoluble except those of potassium, sodium and ammonium Compounds with fluorine Almost all are soluble except those of magnesium, calcium, strontium (II), barium (II) and lead (II) Perchlorates and acetates All are soluble Chlorates All are soluble except potassium chlorate Metal hydroxides and oxides Most are insoluble

Salts of carbonates, phosphates, oxalates, chromates and sulphides are generally insoluble.

## Testing for common anions in solution

It is also possible to carry out tests to determine which ions are present in a solution. You should try to do each of these tests in class.

As always when working with chemicals, you must work carefully as you can easily get bad chemical burns if you spill the chemicals on yourself.

## Test for a chloride

Prepare a solution of the unknown salt using distilled water and add a small amount of silver nitrate solution. If a white precipitate forms, the salt is either a chloride or a carbonate.

${\mathrm{Cl}}^{-}+{\mathrm{Ag}}^{+}+{\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\to \mathrm{AgCl}+{\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}$
( $\mathrm{AgCl}$ is white precipitate)
${\mathrm{CO}}_{3}^{2-}+2{\mathrm{Ag}}^{+}+2{\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\to {\mathrm{Ag}}_{2}{\mathrm{CO}}_{3}+2{\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}$
( ${\mathrm{Ag}}_{2}{\mathrm{CO}}_{3}$ is white precipitate)

The next step is to treat the precipitate with a small amount of concentrated nitric acid . If the precipitate remains unchanged, then the salt is a chloride. If carbon dioxide is formed, and the precipitate disappears, the salt is a carbonate.

$\mathrm{AgCl}+{\mathrm{HNO}}_{3}\to$ (no reaction; precipitate is unchanged)

${\mathrm{Ag}}_{2}{\mathrm{CO}}_{3}+2{\mathrm{HNO}}_{3}\to 2{\mathrm{AgNO}}_{3}+{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}+{\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$ (precipitate disappears)

## Test for a sulphate

Add a small amount of barium chloride solution to a solution of the test salt. If a white precipitate forms, the salt is either a sulphate or a carbonate.

${\mathrm{SO}}_{4}^{2-}+{\mathrm{Ba}}^{2+}+{\mathrm{Cl}}^{-}\to {\mathrm{BaSO}}_{4}+{\mathrm{Cl}}^{-}$ ( ${\mathrm{BaSO}}_{4}$ is a white precipitate)

${\mathrm{CO}}_{3}^{2-}+{\mathrm{Ba}}^{2+}+{\mathrm{Cl}}^{-}\to {\mathrm{BaCO}}_{3}+{\mathrm{Cl}}^{-}$ ( ${\mathrm{BaCO}}_{3}$ is a white precipitate)

If the precipitate is treated with nitric acid, it is possible to distinguish whether the salt is a sulphate or a carbonate (as in the test for a chloride).

${\mathrm{BaSO}}_{4}+{\mathrm{HNO}}_{3}\to$ (no reaction; precipitate is unchanged)

${\mathrm{BaCO}}_{3}+2{\mathrm{HNO}}_{3}\to \mathrm{Ba}{\left({\mathrm{NO}}_{3}\right)}_{2}+{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}+{\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$ (precipitate disappears)

## Test for a carbonate

If a sample of the dry salt is treated with a small amount of acid, the production of carbon dioxide is a positive test for a carbonate.

$\mathrm{Acid}+{\mathrm{CO}}_{3}^{2-}\to {\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$

If the gas is passed through limewater and the solution becomes milky, the gas is carbon dioxide.

${\mathrm{Ca\left(OH\right)}}_{2}+{\mathrm{CO}}_{2}\to {\mathrm{CaCO}}_{3}+\mathrm{H}{}_{2}\mathrm{O}$ (It is the insoluble ${\mathrm{CaCO}}_{3}$ precipitate that makes the limewater go milky)

## Test for bromides and iodides

As was the case with the chlorides, the bromides and iodides also form precipitates when they are reacted with silver nitrate. Silver chloride is a white precipitate, but the silver bromide and silver iodide precipitates are both pale yellow. To determine whether the precipitate is a bromide or an iodide, we use chlorine water and carbon tetrachloride ( ${\mathrm{CCl}}_{4}$ ).

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Good
The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Properties of longitudinal waves