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This report summarizes work done as part of Rice University's VIGRE program. VIGRE is a program of Vertically Integrated Grants for Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences under the direction of the National Science Foundation. A PFUG is a group of Postdocs, Faculty, Undergraduates and Graduate students formed round the study of a common problem. This module describes how one can embed hyperlinks into a LaTeX document that will be translated into Connexions mark-up.


This small template is designed to illustrate one way to embed hyperlinks in your LaTeX document in a way that Connexions will readily translate.This requires use of the html package; you might need to downloadhtml.sty and supporting .styfiles. Details are addressed in "Downloading the html.sty file" below. The popular alternative, hyperref.sty, is not presentlysupported by the LaTeX-to-Connexions translator. Alternatively, you can embed links manually in Connexions once youhave imported your document. You might well find this manual route to be rather simpler at present.

For general advice about LaTeX-to-Connexions translations, see the accompanying Connexions module .

The \htmladdnormallink and \htmladdnormallinkfootcommands allow you to embed links in your LaTeX document.For example, the command

 \htmladdnormallink{Rice website}{http://www.rice.edu}

adds a link to the Rice university website. The first argument to the command \htmladdnormallinkwill be printed as text, whereas the second is the web address (URL) itself.Thus, the command shown above displays as: Rice website .

In some cases you might like to also include the URL itself as the first argument, to get a link such as


which displays as: (External Link) . If you want the link to appear in the LaTeX document, the\htmladdnormallinkfoot command adds the URL as a footnote.For example,

 \htmladdnormallinkfoot{Rice website}{http://www.rice.edu}

produces the output: Rice website . The Connexions translator treats \htmladdnormallinkand \htmladdnormallinkfoot identically.

A word of caution

One must beware of one complication: if the URL contains characters that have special meaning in LaTeX, then you can get run into frustrating errors.For example, if you wish to link to the page http://cnx.org/join_form ,the underscore can cause trouble.

 \htmladdnormallink{http://cnx.org/join_form}{http://cnx.org/join_form}  % error!

will give an error due to the underscore in the first argument . (The underscore in the second argument, the link itself, is fine.)You can get around this problem by simply using normal next for the first argument,

 \htmladdnormallink{Join Connexions}{http://cnx.org/join_form}

which appears as: Join Connexions .

Note that the footnote version, htmladdnormallinkfoot, does not perform well for URLs that contain special characters.For example,

 \htmladdnormallinkfoot{Join Connexions}{http://cnx.org/join_form}  % error!

causes an error despite the absence of problematic characters in the first argument.

Downloading the html.sty file

In drafting this guide, we experimented with several versions of html.sty.

First, we worked with version 95.1, which is available from, for example, this link . This version is easy to work with, but it does not actually embed clickablelinks in your LaTeX output; the links will show up properly in the Connexions translation.

If you want clickable links in your LaTeX document as well as Connexions, you will need a more recent version of html.sty. We tested with version 1.39 (which, counterintuitively, is newer than version 95.1). You can download this version from this link . This version requires a number of subordinate files that might not be includedin your LaTeX installation. You can find most or all of these packages in the oberdiekbundle on the Comphensive TeX Archive Network (CTAN); follow this link and download the entire bundle.

Which version of html.sty should you use?Try version 1.39 first; if it fails, then start downloading the missing packages, or just use version 95.1.

Preparing your latex file for import

When you create the .zip file that contains your LaTeX source,graphics, and bibliography files, be sure to include the html.sty file. If this file is missing, the Connexions translator will fail toconvert your file with minimal details about the error. (Note that if you use html.styversion 1.39, you do not need to include the subordinate .styfiles referred to in the previous section.)


We thank Jonathan Emmons and Brian West for their advice concerning conversion of LaTeX hyperlinks into Connexions.

This Connexions module describes work conducted as part of Rice University's VIGRE program, supported by National Science Foundationgrant DMS–0739420.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The art of the pfug. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10523/1.34
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