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Of course, there is not necessarily exactly one instance of a target signal in a given signal. There could be one instance, more than one instance, or no instance of a target signal. Therefore, it is often more practical to identify all shifts corresponding to local maxima that are above a certain threshold.

The signal in [link] contains an instance of the template signal seen in [link] beginning at time t = s 1 as shown by the plot in [link] . Therefore,

s 1 = argmax t R f | | f | | , w S t g | | w S t g | | .

Pattern signal

This function shows tha pattern we are looking for in the signal below, which occurs at time t = s 1 .

Longer signal

This signal contains an instance of the above signal starting at time t = s 1 .

Absolute value of output

This signal shows a sketch of the absolute value of the matched filter output for the interval shown. Note that this was just an "eyeball approximation" sketch. Observe the pronounced peak at time t = s 1 .
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Practical applications

Image detection

Matched Filtering is used in image processing to detect a template image within a reference image. This has real-word applications in verifying fingerprints for security or in verifying someone's photo. As a simple example, we can turn to the ever-popular "Where's Waldo?" books (known as Wally in the UK!), where the reader is tasked with finding the specific face of Waldo/Wally in a confusing background rife with look-alikes! If we are given the template head and a reference image, we can run a two dimensional convolution of the template image across the reference image to obtain a three dimensional convolution map, [link] , where the height of the convolution map is determined by the degree of correlation, higher being more correlated. Finding our target then becomes a matter of determining the spot where the local surface area is highest. The process is demonstrated in [link] . In the field of image processing, this matched filter-based process is known as template matching .

Example of "Where's Waldo?" picture. Our Matched Filter Detector can be implemented to find a possible match forWaldo.

then we could easily develop a program to find the closest resemblance to the image of Waldo's head in the largerpicture. We would simply implement our same match filter algorithm: take the inner products at each shift and seehow large our resulting answers are. This idea was implemented on this same picture for a Signals and Systems Project at Rice University (click the link to learn more).

What are the advantages of the matched filter algorithm to image detection? What are the drawbacks of this method?

This algorithm is very simple and thus easy to code. However, it is susceptible to certain types of noise - for example, it would be difficult to find Waldo if his face was rotated, flipped, larger or smaller than expected, or distorted in some other way.

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Communications systems

Matched filter detectors are also commonly used in Communications Systems . In fact, they are the optimal detectors in Gaussian noise. Signals in the real-world are often distorted by the environment around them, sothere is a constant struggle to develop ways to be able to receive a distorted signal and then be able to filter itin some way to determine what the original signal was. Matched filters provide one way to compare a receivedsignal with two possible original ("template") signals and determine which one is the closest match to the receivedsignal.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Signals and systems. OpenStax CNX. Aug 14, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10064/1.15
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