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W = P Δ V  (isobaric process). size 12{W=PΔV} {}

Note that if Δ V size 12{ΔV} {} is positive, then W size 12{W} {} is positive, meaning that work is done by the gas on the outside world.

(Note that the pressure involved in this work that we’ve called P size 12{P} {} is the pressure of the gas inside the tank. If we call the pressure outside the tank P ext size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ext"} } } {} , an expanding gas would be working against the external pressure; the work done would therefore be W = P ext Δ V size 12{W= - P rSub { size 8{"ext"} } ΔV} {} (isobaric process). Many texts use this definition of work, and not the definition based on internal pressure, as the basis of the First Law of Thermodynamics. This definition reverses the sign conventions for work, and results in a statement of the first law that becomes Δ U = Q + W size 12{ΔU=Q+W} {} .)

It is not surprising that W = P Δ V size 12{W=PΔV} {} , since we have already noted in our treatment of fluids that pressure is a type of potential energy per unit volume and that pressure in fact has units of energy divided by volume. We also noted in our discussion of the ideal gas law that PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} has units of energy. In this case, some of the energy associated with pressure becomes work.

[link] shows a graph of pressure versus volume (that is, a PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagram for an isobaric process. You can see in the figure that the work done is the area under the graph. This property of PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagrams is very useful and broadly applicable: the work done on or by a system in going from one state to another equals the area under the curve on a PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagram .

The graph of pressure verses volume is shown for a constant pressure. The pressure P is along the Y axis and the volume is along the X axis. The graph is a straight line parallel to the X axis for a value of pressure P. Two points are marked on the graph at either end of the line as A and B. A is the starting point of the graph and B is the end point of graph. There is an arrow pointing from A to B. The term isobaric is written on the graph. For a length of graph equal to delta V the area of the graph is shown as a shaded area given by P times delta V which is equal to work W.
A graph of pressure versus volume for a constant-pressure, or isobaric, process, such as the one shown in [link] . The area under the curve equals the work done by the gas, since W = P Δ V size 12{W=PΔV} {} .
The diagram in part a shows a pressure versus volume graph. The pressure is along the Y axis and the volume is along the X axis. The curve is a smooth falling curve from the highest point A to the lowest point B. The curve is segmented into small vertical rectangular sections of equal width. One of the sections is marked as width of delta V sub one along the X axis. The pressure P sub one average multiplied by delta V sub one gives the work done for that strip of the graph. Part b of the figure shows a similar graph for the reverse path. The curve now slopes upward from point A to point B. An equation in the top right of the graph reads W sub in equals the opposite of W sub out for the same path.
(a) A PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagram in which pressure varies as well as volume. The work done for each interval is its average pressure times the change in volume, or the area under the curve over that interval. Thus the total area under the curve equals the total work done. (b) Work must be done on the system to follow the reverse path. This is interpreted as a negative area under the curve.

We can see where this leads by considering [link] (a), which shows a more general process in which both pressure and volume change. The area under the curve is closely approximated by dividing it into strips, each having an average constant pressure P i ( ave ) size 12{P rSub { size 8{i \( "ave" \) } } } {} . The work done is W i = P i ( ave ) Δ V i size 12{W rSub { size 8{i} } =P rSub { size 8{i \( "ave" \) } } DV rSub { size 8{i} } } {} for each strip, and the total work done is the sum of the W i size 12{W rSub { size 8{i} } } {} . Thus the total work done is the total area under the curve. If the path is reversed, as in [link] (b), then work is done on the system. The area under the curve in that case is negative, because Δ V size 12{ΔV} {} is negative.

PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagrams clearly illustrate that the work done depends on the path taken and not just the endpoints . This path dependence is seen in [link] (a), where more work is done in going from A to C by the path via point B than by the path via point D. The vertical paths, where volume is constant, are called isochoric processes. Since volume is constant, Δ V = 0 size 12{ΔV=0} {} , and no work is done in an isochoric process. Now, if the system follows the cyclical path ABCDA, as in [link] (b), then the total work done is the area inside the loop. The negative area below path CD subtracts, leaving only the area inside the rectangle. In fact, the work done in any cyclical process (one that returns to its starting point) is the area inside the loop it forms on a PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagram, as [link] (c) illustrates for a general cyclical process. Note that the loop must be traversed in the clockwise direction for work to be positive—that is, for there to be a net work output.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
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Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
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Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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characteristics of micro business
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Source:  OpenStax, College physics: physics of california. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11577/1.1
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