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This was a century of great Roman activity. By 290 B.C. all territory of the Sabines had come under Roman rule, and after the battle of Lake Vadimo about 280 B.C. the Samnite resistance was crushed and Rome controlled all the harbors of Italy as well as having perhaps 40,000 slave-captives. In 281 B.C. a Roman general had also triumphed over Etruscan Volsinii and Vulci. Italy was densely populated by a hardy peasantry, which gave the Romans a dependable pool of military man-power. Their labor force, like the Greeks before them, was slaves. Rome, too, was a slave society. (Ref. 249 )


In the meantime, Pyrrhus, king of Epirus in the Balkans, and a kinsman of Alexander the Great, responded to pleas of the Greek city-states of Syracuse (Sicily) and Tarentum on the heel of the boot and helped them fight the Romans for control of south Italy. Rome was even joined by Carthage in this particular fight, in the attempt to keep Pyrrhus out of Sicily. King Pyrrhus brought 25,OOO men and many elephants which terrified the Italians and he initially won some victories at Heraclea (280 B.C.) and Asculum (279 B.C.) but lost many men and much strength, so that by 275 Rome had won and had reached the toe and heel of the boot of Italy. Carthage still held the western end of Sicily. (Ref. 8 , 28 )

By 260 B.C. Rome controlled 10,000 square miles of Italy, and with her allies another 52,000 square miles. It had about 292,000 men and its allies about 750,000, with a total population of about 3,000,000. This powerful confederacy had now become a potential challenge to Carthage and war between the two great powers broke out in 264 B.C. This First Punic War began a century of warfare for the mastery of the Mediterranean. With Hamilcar (see footnote on page 243) leading the Carthaginians and Regulus becoming the Roman hero, this was essentially a series of gigantic sea battles with a few land skirmishes in Sicily and the southern tip of Italy. The Romans won the sea battles by the "corvus", a boarding crane that allowed their soldiers to board the Carthaginian ships. (See NORTH CENTRAL AFRICA, earlier in this chapter, page 233). Carthage sued for peace in 241 B.C., giving Sicily to Rome and removing restrictions on Roman trade in the Mediterranean. In the next four years, while Carthage was torn by a bloody internal revolution, Rome took Sardinia and Corsica in treaty violations. (Ref. 48 , 8 )

These treaty violations set the stage for the Second Punic War beginning in 219 B.C. and continuing until 201. The Carthaginian General Hannibal (See footnote on page 243) entered Spain, enlisted Gaul mercenaries

14,000 Gaul mercenaries signed up with Hannibal and in addition a whole series of Celtic units in the Roma legions killed their officers and taking their victims heads along, deserted to the Carthaginians. (Ref. 91 )
, got help from Macedonia and Sicily, crossed the Alps with men and elephants, conquered most of Italy except Rome itself, and in a final winter, bedded his army down in Capua, south of Rome. He was poorly supplied from Carthage through Tarentum, which had fallen in 209 B.C. and his troops now seemed to lose their vigor. (Ref. 229 ) In 202 B.C. Hannibal was called back to Carthage where he was finally defeated by the Roman General Scipio, who was helped by Numidian cavalry under King Massinissa. In the end, Rome controlled all of Italy and Spain, but it was a costly war which changed Roman life considerably. There was an increase in urbanity with damage to the concept of democracy and the beginning of imperialistic expansion. Other factors may have played additional roles in the ending of rural simplicity. Apparently a declining rainfall about 250 B.C. provoked a marked decrease in the flow of Italian rivers, with resulting formation of mosquito-breeding marshes and stagnant pools. The mosquitoes, in turn, brought malaria. Grain production dropped and the grapevine and the olive began to be the big crops, so that even when the rains returned late in the century, Rome was already dependent forever on imported grain. The tens of thousands of slaves obtained in warfare augmented the slave society. But the capstone and triumph of Roman democracy also occurred in this century with the Lex Hortensia, in 287 B.C., a law in which the Senate agreed that decisions of the tribal assembly should have the force of law, even when contrary to the resolutions of the Senate.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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