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Would the previous question make any sense for an isochoric process? Explain your answer.

We ordinarily say that Δ U = 0 size 12{DU=0} {} for an isothermal process. Does this assume no phase change takes place? Explain your answer.

The temperature of a rapidly expanding gas decreases. Explain why in terms of the first law of thermodynamics. (Hint: Consider whether the gas does work and whether heat transfer occurs rapidly into the gas through conduction.)

Which cyclical process represented by the two closed loops, ABCFA and ABDEA, on the PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagram in the figure below produces the greatest net work? Is that process also the one with the smallest work input required to return it to point A? Explain your responses.

The figure shows a graph of pressure versus volume. The pressure is along the Y axis and the volume is plotted along the X axis. The graph consists of a rectangle, A B C F, superimposed on a slightly larger rectangle, A B D E. The lines A B, C F, and D E are parallel to the X axis and lines B C D and A F E are parallel to the Y axis.
The two cyclical processes shown on this PV diagram start with and return the system to the conditions at point A, but they follow different paths and produce different amounts of work.

A real process may be nearly adiabatic if it occurs over a very short time. How does the short time span help the process to be adiabatic?

It is unlikely that a process can be isothermal unless it is a very slow process. Explain why. Is the same true for isobaric and isochoric processes? Explain your answer.

Problem exercises

A car tire contains 0 . 0380 m 3 size 12{0 "." "0380"" m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} of air at a pressure of 2 . 20 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{2 "." "20"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} (about 32 psi). How much more internal energy does this gas have than the same volume has at zero gauge pressure (which is equivalent to normal atmospheric pressure)?

6 . 77 × 10 3 J size 12{6 "." "77" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `J} {}

A helium-filled toy balloon has a gauge pressure of 0.200 atm and a volume of 10.0 L. How much greater is the internal energy of the helium in the balloon than it would be at zero gauge pressure?

Steam to drive an old-fashioned steam locomotive is supplied at a constant gauge pressure of 1 . 75 × 10 6 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." "75"´"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} (about 250 psi) to a piston with a 0.200-m radius. (a) By calculating P Δ V size 12{PDV} {} , find the work done by the steam when the piston moves 0.800 m. Note that this is the net work output, since gauge pressure is used. (b) Now find the amount of work by calculating the force exerted times the distance traveled. Is the answer the same as in part (a)?

(a) W = P Δ V = 1 . 76 × 10 5 J size 12{W=PΔV= {underline {1 "." "76" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " J"}} } {}

(b) W = Fd = 1 . 76 × 10 5 J size 12{W= ital "Fd"= ital "PAd"= {underline {1 "." "76" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " J"}} } {} . Yes, the answer is the same.

A hand-driven tire pump has a piston with a 2.50-cm diameter and a maximum stroke of 30.0 cm. (a) How much work do you do in one stroke if the average gauge pressure is 2 . 40 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{2 "." "40"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} (about 35 psi)? (b) What average force do you exert on the piston, neglecting friction and gravitational force?

Calculate the net work output of a heat engine following path ABCDA in the figure below.

A graph is shown of pressure versus volume, with pressure on the Y axis and volume on the X axis. A parallelogram connects four points are on the graph, A, B, C, and D. A is at y equals 2 point 6 times 10 to the six newtons per meter squared and x equals 1 point zero times ten to the minus three meters cubed. A downward sloping line connects A to B. B is at y equals 2 point zero, x equals four. A vertical line connects B to C. C is at y equals zero point 6, x equals 4. A line connects C to D. D is at y equals one point zero, x equals one point zero. A vertical line connects D to A. A diagonal line also connects D and B.

W = 4 . 5 × 10 3 J size 12{W=4 "." 5 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `J} {}

What is the net work output of a heat engine that follows path ABDA in the figure above, with a straight line from B to D? Why is the work output less than for path ABCDA? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Thermodynamics .

Unreasonable Results

What is wrong with the claim that a cyclical heat engine does 4.00 kJ of work on an input of 24.0 kJ of heat transfer while 16.0 kJ of heat transfers to the environment?

W size 12{W} {} is not equal to the difference between the heat input and the heat output.

(a) A cyclical heat engine, operating between temperatures of 450º C size 12{"450"°C} {} and 150º C size 12{"150"°C} {} produces 4.00 MJ of work on a heat transfer of 5.00 MJ into the engine. How much heat transfer occurs to the environment? (b) What is unreasonable about the engine? (c) Which premise is unreasonable?

Construct Your Own Problem

Consider a car’s gasoline engine. Construct a problem in which you calculate the maximum efficiency this engine can have. Among the things to consider are the effective hot and cold reservoir temperatures. Compare your calculated efficiency with the actual efficiency of car engines.

Construct Your Own Problem

Consider a car trip into the mountains. Construct a problem in which you calculate the overall efficiency of the car for the trip as a ratio of kinetic and potential energy gained to fuel consumed. Compare this efficiency to the thermodynamic efficiency quoted for gasoline engines and discuss why the thermodynamic efficiency is so much greater. Among the factors to be considered are the gain in altitude and speed, the mass of the car, the distance traveled, and typical fuel economy.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
How we can toraidal magnetic field
Aditya Reply
How we can create polaidal magnetic field
Mykayuh Reply
Because I'm writing a report and I would like to be really precise for the references
Gre Reply
where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!
Gre Reply
Practice Key Terms 6

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Source:  OpenStax, Physics 101. OpenStax CNX. Jan 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11479/1.1
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