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Eventually the picture looks like the complete reflection through the x -axis of what we started with:

Then all the points begin to move back. Each point on the line is oscillating up and down with a different amplitude.

If we look at the overall result, we get a standing wave.

A standing wave

If we superimpose the two cases where the peaks were at a maximum and the case where the same waves were at a minimum we can see thelines that the points oscillate between. We call this the envelope of the standing wave as it contains all the oscillations of the individual points.To make the concept of the envelope clearer let us draw arrows describing the motion of points along the line.

Every point in the medium containing a standing wave oscillates up and down and the amplitude of the oscillations depends on thelocation of the point. It is convenient to draw the envelope for the oscillations to describe the motion. We cannot draw the up and downarrows for every single point!

Interesting fact

Standing waves can be a problem in for example indoor concerts where the dimensions of the concert venue coincide with particular wavelengths. Standing waves can appear as `feedback', which would occur if the standing wave was picked up by the microphones on stage and amplified.

Nodes and anti-nodes

A node is a point on a wave where no displacement takes place at any time. In a standing wave, a node is a place where two waves cancel out completely as the two waves destructively interfere in thesame place. A fixed end of a rope is a node. An anti-node is a point on a wave where maximum displacement takes place. In a standingwave, an anti-node is a place where the two waves constructively interfere. Anti-nodes occur midway between nodes. A free end of a rope is an anti-node.

Node

A node is a point on a standing wave where no displacement takes place at any time. A fixed end of a rope is a node.

Anti-Node

An anti-node is a point on standing a wave where maximum displacement takes place. A free end of a rope is an anti-node.

The distance between two anti-nodes is only 1 2 λ because it is the distance from a peak to a trough in one of the waves forming the standing wave. It is the same as the distance between two adjacent nodes. This will be important when we work out the allowed wavelengths in tubes later. We can take this further because half-way between any two anti-nodes is a node. Then the distance from the node to the anti-node is half the distance between two anti-nodes. This is half of half a wavelength which is one quarter of a wavelength, 1 4 λ .

Wavelengths of standing waves with fixed and free ends

There are many applications which make use of the properties of waves and the use of fixed and free ends. Most musical instruments rely onthe basic picture that we have presented to create specific sounds, either through standing pressure waves or standing vibratory waves instrings.

The key is to understand that a standing wave must be created in the medium that is oscillating. There are restrictions as to whatwavelengths can form standing waves in a medium.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science. OpenStax CNX. Aug 29, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11245/1.3
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