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Strategy and Solution for (a)

The total resistance for a parallel combination of resistors is found using the equation below. Entering known values gives

1 R p = 1 R 1 + 1 R 2 + 1 R 3 = 1 1 . 00 Ω + 1 6 . 00 Ω + 1 13 . 0 Ω . size 12{ { {1} over {R rSub { size 8{p} } } } = { {1} over {R rSub { size 8{1} } } } + { {1} over {R rSub { size 8{2} } } } + { {1} over {R rSub { size 8{3} } } } = { {1} over {1 "." "00" %OMEGA } } + { {1} over {6 "." "00" %OMEGA } } + { {1} over {"13" "." 0 %OMEGA } } } {}

Thus,

1 R p = 1.00 Ω + 0 . 1667 Ω + 0 . 07692 Ω = 1 . 2436 Ω . size 12{ { {1} over {R rSub { size 8{p} } } } = { {1 "." "00"} over { %OMEGA } } + { {0 "." "167"} over { %OMEGA } } + { {0 "." "0769"} over { %OMEGA } } = { {1 "." "244"} over { %OMEGA } } } {}

(Note that in these calculations, each intermediate answer is shown with an extra digit.)

We must invert this to find the total resistance R p size 12{R rSub { size 8{p} } } {} . This yields

R p = 1 1 . 2436 Ω = 0 . 8041 Ω . size 12{R rSub { size 8{p} } = { {1} over {1 "." "2436"} } %OMEGA =0 "." "8041 " %OMEGA } {}

The total resistance with the correct number of significant digits is R p = 0 . 804 Ω . size 12{R rSub { size 8{p} } =0 "." "804" %OMEGA } {}

Discussion for (a)

R p is, as predicted, less than the smallest individual resistance.

Strategy and Solution for (b)

The total current can be found from Ohm’s law, substituting R p size 12{R rSub { size 8{p} } } {} for the total resistance. This gives

I = V R p = 12.0 V 0.8041 Ω = 14 . 92 A . size 12{I= { {V} over {R rSub { size 8{p} } } } = { {"12" "." 0" V"} over {0 "." "804 " %OMEGA } } ="14" "." "92"" A"} {}

Discussion for (b)

Current I size 12{I} {} for each device is much larger than for the same devices connected in series (see the previous example). A circuit with parallel connections has a smaller total resistance than the resistors connected in series.

Strategy and Solution for (c)

The individual currents are easily calculated from Ohm’s law, since each resistor gets the full voltage. Thus,

I 1 = V R 1 = 12 . 0 V 1 . 00 Ω = 12 . 0 A . size 12{I rSub { size 8{1} } = { {V} over {R rSub { size 8{1} } } } = { {"12" "." 0" V"} over {1 "." "00 " %OMEGA } } ="12" "." 0" A"} {}

Similarly,

I 2 = V R 2 = 12 . 0 V 6 . 00 Ω = 2 . 00 A size 12{I rSub { size 8{2} } = { {V} over {R rSub { size 8{2} } } } = { {"12" "." 0" V"} over {6 "." "00 " %OMEGA } } =2 "." "00"" A"} {}

and

I 3 = V R 3 = 12 . 0 V 13 . 0 Ω = 0 . 92 A . size 12{I rSub { size 8{3} } = { {V} over {R rSub { size 8{3} } } } = { {"12" "." 0" V"} over {"13" "." "0 " %OMEGA } } =0 "." "92"" A"} {}

Discussion for (c)

The total current is the sum of the individual currents:

I 1 + I 2 + I 3 = 14 . 92 A . size 12{I rSub { size 8{1} } +I rSub { size 8{2} } +I rSub { size 8{3} } ="14" "." "92"" A"} {}

This is consistent with conservation of charge.

Strategy and Solution for (d)

The power dissipated by each resistor can be found using any of the equations relating power to current, voltage, and resistance, since all three are known. Let us use P = V 2 R size 12{P= { {V rSup { size 8{2} } } over {R} } } {} , since each resistor gets full voltage. Thus,

P 1 = V 2 R 1 = ( 12 . 0 V ) 2 1 . 00 Ω = 144 W . size 12{P rSub { size 8{1} } = { {V rSup { size 8{2} } } over {R rSub { size 8{1} } } } = { { \( "12" "." 0" V" \) rSup { size 8{2} } } over {1 "." "00 " %OMEGA } } ="144"" W"} {}

Similarly,

P 2 = V 2 R 2 = ( 12 . 0 V ) 2 6 . 00 Ω = 24 . 0 W size 12{P rSub { size 8{2} } = { {V rSup { size 8{2} } } over {R rSub { size 8{2} } } } = { { \( "12" "." 0" V" \) rSup { size 8{2} } } over {6 "." "00 " %OMEGA } } ="24" "." 0" W"} {}

and

P 3 = V 2 R 3 = ( 12 . 0 V ) 2 13 . 0 Ω = 11 . 1 W . size 12{P rSub { size 8{3} } = { {V rSup { size 8{2} } } over {R rSub { size 8{3} } } } = { { \( "12" "." 0" V" \) rSup { size 8{2} } } over {"13" "." "0 " %OMEGA } } ="11" "." 1" W"} {}

Discussion for (d)

The power dissipated by each resistor is considerably higher in parallel than when connected in series to the same voltage source.

Strategy and Solution for (e)

The total power can also be calculated in several ways. Choosing P = IV size 12{P= ital "IV"} {} , and entering the total current, yields

P = IV = ( 14.92 A ) ( 12.0 V ) = 179 W . size 12{P= ital "IV"= \( "14" "." "92"" A" \) \( "12" "." 0" V" \) ="179" "." 1" W"} {}

Discussion for (e)

Total power dissipated by the resistors is also 179 W:

P 1 + P 2 + P 3 = 144 W + 24 . 0 W + 11 . 1 W = 179 W . size 12{P rSub { size 8{1} } +P rSub { size 8{2} } +P rSub { size 8{3} } ="144"" W"+"24" "." 0" W"+"11" "." 1" W"="179"" W"} {}

This is consistent with the law of conservation of energy.

Overall Discussion

Note that both the currents and powers in parallel connections are greater than for the same devices in series.

Major features of resistors in parallel

  1. Parallel resistance is found from 1 R p = 1 R 1 + 1 R 2 + 1 R 3 + . . . size 12{ { {1} over {R rSub { size 8{p} } } } = { {1} over {R rSub { size 8{1} } } } + { {1} over {R rSub { size 8{2} } } } + { {1} over {R rSub { size 8{3} } } } + "." "." "." } {} , and it is smaller than any individual resistance in the combination.
  2. Each resistor in parallel has the same full voltage of the source applied to it. (Power distribution systems most often use parallel connections to supply the myriad devices served with the same voltage and to allow them to operate independently.)
  3. Parallel resistors do not each get the total current; they divide it.

Combinations of series and parallel

More complex connections of resistors are sometimes just combinations of series and parallel. These are commonly encountered, especially when wire resistance is considered. In that case, wire resistance is in series with other resistances that are in parallel.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Introductory physics - for kpu phys 1100 (2015 edition). OpenStax CNX. May 30, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11588/1.13
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