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What results did Mendel find in his crosses for flower color? First, Mendel confirmed that he had plants that bred true for white or violet flower color. Regardless of how many generations Mendel examined, all self-crossed offspring of parents with white flowers had white flowers, and all self-crossed offspring of parents with violet flowers had violet flowers. In addition, Mendel confirmed that, other than flower color, the pea plants were physically identical.

Once these validations were complete, Mendel applied the pollen from a plant with violet flowers to the stigma of a plant with white flowers. After gathering and sowing the seeds that resulted from this cross, Mendel found that 100 percent of the F 1 hybrid generation had violet flowers. Conventional wisdom at that time would have predicted the hybrid flowers to be pale violet or for hybrid plants to have equal numbers of white and violet flowers. In other words, the contrasting parental traits were expected to blend in the offspring. Instead, Mendel’s results demonstrated that the white flower trait in the F 1 generation had completely disappeared.

Importantly, Mendel did not stop his experimentation there. He allowed the F 1 plants to self-fertilize and found that, of F 2 -generation plants, 705 had violet flowers and 224 had white flowers. This was a ratio of 3.15 violet flowers per one white flower, or approximately 3:1. When Mendel transferred pollen from a plant with violet flowers to the stigma of a plant with white flowers and vice versa, he obtained about the same ratio regardless of which parent, male or female, contributed which trait. This is called a reciprocal cross    —a paired cross in which the respective traits of the male and female in one cross become the respective traits of the female and male in the other cross. For the other six characteristics Mendel examined, the F 1 and F 2 generations behaved in the same way as they had for flower color. One of the two traits would disappear completely from the F 1 generation only to reappear in the F 2 generation at a ratio of approximately 3:1 ( [link] ).

The Results of Mendel’s Garden Pea Hybridizations
Characteristic Contrasting P 0 Traits F 1 Offspring Traits F 2 Offspring Traits F 2 Trait Ratios
Flower color Violet vs. white 100 percent violet
  • 705 violet
  • 224 white
3.15:1
Flower position Axial vs. terminal 100 percent axial
  • 651 axial
  • 207 terminal
3.14:1
Plant height Tall vs. dwarf 100 percent tall
  • 787 tall
  • 277 dwarf
2.84:1
Seed texture Round vs. wrinkled 100 percent round
  • 5,474 round
  • 1,850 wrinkled
2.96:1
Seed color Yellow vs. green 100 percent yellow
  • 6,022 yellow
  • 2,001 green
3.01:1
Pea pod texture Inflated vs. constricted 100 percent inflated
  • 882 inflated
  • 299 constricted
2.95:1
Pea pod color Green vs. yellow 100 percent green
  • 428 green
  • 152 yellow
2.82:1

Upon compiling his results for many thousands of plants, Mendel concluded that the characteristics could be divided into expressed and latent traits. He called these, respectively, dominant and recessive traits. Dominant traits are those that are inherited unchanged in a hybridization. Recessive traits become latent, or disappear, in the offspring of a hybridization. The recessive trait does, however, reappear in the progeny of the hybrid offspring. An example of a dominant trait is the violet-flower trait. For this same characteristic (flower color), white-colored flowers are a recessive trait. The fact that the recessive trait reappeared in the F 2 generation meant that the traits remained separate (not blended) in the plants of the F 1 generation. Mendel also proposed that plants possessed two copies of the trait for the flower-color characteristic, and that each parent transmitted one of its two copies to its offspring, where they came together. Moreover, the physical observation of a dominant trait could mean that the genetic composition of the organism included two dominant versions of the characteristic or that it included one dominant and one recessive version. Conversely, the observation of a recessive trait meant that the organism lacked any dominant versions of this characteristic.

Questions & Answers

what are the two types of electron microscope
Sharlom Reply
light microscope and early microscope
Sama
Enzymes are biological catalyst which alter any reaction and protein in nature
Nkoue Reply
Thanks
Gaudi
Your welcome sir
Nkoue
guyz you enjoying
Royd
What is translation and transcription
Nkoue
Transcription is making RNA from DNA. Translation is going from RNA to proteins.
Eric
what is the definition of enzymes
Royd Reply
enzymes are biological catalyst that speed up chemical reaction.
Alale
What are enzymes?
Gaudi
Enzymes are made of proteins and lower the energy of activation. In other words, they bring things together which helps to lower the amount of energy for a reaction to go forward.
Eric
they are catalyses that speeds up chemical reaction.... e.g they break down the food we consume.
Azeez
what is a spirogyra
Talabi Reply
Spirogyra is a filamentous chlorophyte green algae of the order Zygnematales. It is named for the helical or spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts. That is characteristic of the genus. It is commonly found in freshwater habitats. And there are more than 400 species of Spirogyra in the world.
Eric
what is the mean of biology
Bello Reply
what is cell
Bello
A cell is the smallest living unit.
Eric
Hi I'm new in this group can someone please help with the list features shared by plants and charopytes that are not shared with most other eukaryotes
Wendy
what is eutrophication
Chinaza Reply
Show well labeled diagram of female reproductive organs
Lanlege Reply
phenotype is your big head
Amagiya Reply
The phenotype is the physical appearance or things you can see. Or the traits expressed by ones DNA.
Eric
phenotypes are appearance that can be seen and touched
Chidera
what is a dichotomous key
Moses Reply
explain the role of
Moses
Dichotomous key : Is the key that is use to classify or group an organism base on their common features
Alale
an amoeba is what kind of cellular organism?
Mercy Reply
It is a protizoa with bilayer membrane bound organelles. Therefore it is eukaryotic.
Eric
what is amoeba
Muhammad
amoeba is a unicellular organisms. Therefore it is made u of only one call.
Alale
what is phenotype
Muhammad
amoeba is a unicellular organism with one cell
Chinaza
name ten equipments found in soil science laboratory and their uses
AFANU Reply
daigram of connective tissue
Yunusa Reply
what is polarization
Finda Reply
in the concept of science, polarization involves light, radiation, magnetism moving in specific directions
Chidera
What is appendicular
GLORIA Reply
relating to or denoting an appendage or appendages.
Eric
Homeostasis definition
Ben Reply
can be defined as a steady of internal environment
Aliyu
MMMM!!!
Kaole
🙄
Aliyu
:-)
Kaole

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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