# 11.7 Phase changes

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• Interpret a phase diagram.
• State Dalton’s law.
• Identify and describe the triple point of a gas from its phase diagram.
• Describe the state of equilibrium between a liquid and a gas, a liquid and a solid, and a gas and a solid.

Up to now, we have considered the behavior of ideal gases. Real gases are like ideal gases at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, however, the interactions between the molecules and their volumes cannot be ignored. The molecules are very close (condensation occurs) and there is a dramatic decrease in volume, as seen in [link] . The substance changes from a gas to a liquid. When a liquid is cooled to even lower temperatures, it becomes a solid. The volume never reaches zero because of the finite volume of the molecules.

High pressure may also cause a gas to change phase to a liquid. Carbon dioxide, for example, is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, but becomes a liquid under sufficiently high pressure. If the pressure is reduced, the temperature drops and the liquid carbon dioxide solidifies into a snow-like substance at the temperature $–\text{78}\text{º}\text{C}$ . Solid ${\text{CO}}_{2}$ is called “dry ice.” Another example of a gas that can be in a liquid phase is liquid nitrogen $\left({\text{LN}}_{2}\right)$ . ${\text{LN}}_{2}$ is made by liquefaction of atmospheric air (through compression and cooling). It boils at 77 K $\left(–\text{196}\text{º}\text{C}\right)$ at atmospheric pressure. ${\text{LN}}_{2}$ is useful as a refrigerant and allows for the preservation of blood, sperm, and other biological materials. It is also used to reduce noise in electronic sensors and equipment, and to help cool down their current-carrying wires. In dermatology, ${\text{LN}}_{2}$ is used to freeze and painlessly remove warts and other growths from the skin.

## PV Diagrams

We can examine aspects of the behavior of a substance by plotting a graph of pressure versus volume, called a PV diagram    . When the substance behaves like an ideal gas, the ideal gas law describes the relationship between its pressure and volume. That is,

$\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{PV}=\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{NkT}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\left(\text{ideal gas}\right)\text{.}$

Now, assuming the number of molecules and the temperature are fixed,

$\text{PV}=\text{constant}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\left(\text{ideal gas, constant temperature}\right)\text{.}$

For example, the volume of the gas will decrease as the pressure increases. If you plot the relationship $\text{PV}=\text{constant}$ on a $\text{PV}$ diagram, you find a hyperbola. [link] shows a graph of pressure versus volume. The hyperbolas represent ideal-gas behavior at various fixed temperatures, and are called isotherms . At lower temperatures, the curves begin to look less like hyperbolas—the gas is not behaving ideally and may even contain liquid. There is a critical point    —that is, a critical temperature    —above which liquid cannot exist. At sufficiently high pressure above the critical point, the gas will have the density of a liquid but will not condense. Carbon dioxide, for example, cannot be liquefied at a temperature above $\text{31}\text{.}0\text{º}\text{C}$ . Critical pressure is the minimum pressure needed for liquid to exist at the critical temperature. [link] lists representative critical temperatures and pressures.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
How we can toraidal magnetic field
How we can create polaidal magnetic field
4
Because I'm writing a report and I would like to be really precise for the references
where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!